Ground Transportation Gaps: The Most Heavily Traveled Intercity Routes Without Express Coach or Rail Passenger Service in the United States
Joseph Schwieterman, Depaul UniversityShow Abstract
C. Scott Smith, Depaul University
Gradual expansions to the express coach and rail system since 2006 have provided millions of Americans new alternatives to private automobile travel on intercity trips. Despite this, many routes still lack ground-travel options that many travelers would consider minimally acceptable. Through a review of available services throughout the United States, this study draws three conclusions.
First, despite the momentum behind rail and bus services in recent years, prominent “Ground Transportation Gaps” persist, leaving travelers without practical alternatives to automobile and air travel on trips in the 120 – 400 mile range. Although conventional bus service, such as Greyhound, may be available, the absence of express coach lines and rail passenger service on these routes leave many without options regarded as viable alternatives to flying or driving. Second, numerous short- and mid-distance routes without rail or express coach line service generate more than one million trips per year, including Los Angeles – Phoenix, Cleveland – Detroit, Columbus, OH – Detroit, Chicago – Columbus, OH, and Phoenix – San Diego. Thirty one intercity routes are estimated to generate more than 400,000 trips annually. Finally, the absence of express coach and rail-passenger services leaves air services priced at more than $300 as the only practical option to driving on numerous heavily traveled routes in mileage range considered.
The study calls for practical steps to restore momentum to bus and rail travel that require a relatively small amount of public investment, including ways to cultivate new express coach service and promote greater rail/bus integration.
Competition Between High-Speed Rail and Air Transport in Iran Case Study: Tehran–Isfahan
Amirreza Nickkar, Morgan State UniversityShow Abstract
Mansoureh Jeihani, Morgan State University
Matin Danapour, Iran University of Science and Technology
Given the government’s significant investment in the high-speed rail projects and their infrastructures, it will be important for decision makers to maintain oversight of the project and ensure it will be a competitive mode. This study evaluates the competition between the planned high-speed rail mode and current air transport based on the case of the Tehran-Isfahan route. First, the variables of ticket price, travel time, hospitality, and convenience were identified by reviewing past studies, and then the data required for developing the model in the software were collected using questionnaires. The survey was conducted from January 2015 to April 2015 in the Mehrabad airport of Tehran, and 437 surveyes were collected. The binomial logit model was applied to predict the probability of choosing each of the two modes. The results show that variables of travel time, ticket price, convenience, and hospitality competed to influence decisions; however, travel time is the most important variable in determining the share of each mode, and passengers’ are more sensitive to this variable than the others. In addition, long durations of trips, ticket prices, lack of food services, and highly packed arrangements of seats in high-speed rail decreased its utility versus air transport.
Optimization Research on the Fiscal Subsidy Mode for Intercity Railway Based on Environmental Cost
Yuling YeShow Abstract
Yunfei Zhou, Tongji University
The characteristics of Intercity Railway include safety, reliability, low carbon and environmental protection, therefore the government's fiscal subsidy for intercity railway is beneficial to reduce energy consumption and pollution emission, and further to realize the public welfare goal of reducing the environmental cost of transportation system. In this paper, firstly we take the environmental cost of traffic system, enterprise benefits of intercity railway and intercity passenger demand into consideration, and establish a bi-level programming model, which the decision-level aims at the minimum environmental cost and the maximum enterprise benefits and the execution-level aims at passenger flow assignment. Then we use genetic algorithm to figure out the optimal operating frequency in the bi-level programming. Following that we propose the fiscal subsidy modes for intercity railway and calculate the optimal operating frequency of intercity trains under the different fare subsidy rate. Lastly we analysis the results and obtain the optimal fiscal subsidy model for intercity railway with the comparison of the total expenditures of government subsidies. The model is verified by an example of case in the end and the research of this paper provides a theoretical reference for the government fiscal subsidy policy.
Stochastic Model of Train Running Time and Arrival Delay: A Case Study of Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Rail (HSR)
Javad Lessan, University of WaterlooShow Abstract
Liping Fu, University of Waterloo
Chao Wen, University of Waterloo
Ping Huang, Southwest Jiaotong University
Chaozhe Jiang, Southwest Jiaotong University
Train operations are subject to stochastic variations, reducing service punctuality and thus quality of service (QoS). Models of such variations are needed to evaluate and predict their potential impacts for improved service management and timetabling. In this paper through a case study of the Wuhan-Guangzhou (WH-GZ) high-speed rail (HSR), we show how a wealth of train operation records can be used to model the stochastic nature of train operations at a section- and station-level. Specifically, we examine different distribution models for running times of individual sections and show that the Log-logistic probability density function is the best distributional form to approximate the empirical distribution of running times. Next, we show that the distribution of running times in each section can be used to accurately infer arrival delays. Consequently, we construct the underlying analytical model and derive the respective arrival delay distribution at the downstream stations. The results support the correctness of the presented model and that the proposed model is suitable for constructing the distribution of arrival delays at every station of the specified line. We show that the integrated distribution models of the running times and arrival delays, driven by empirical data, can be used to evaluate the quality of service (QoS) at individual track sections.
A Bilevel Passenger Preference–Oriented Line-Planning Model for High-Speed Railway Operations
Yuxiang Yang, Southwest Jiaotong UniversityShow Abstract
Jie Li, Southwest Jiaotong University
Chao Wen, University of Waterloo
Ping Huang, Southwest Jiaotong University
Qiyuan Peng, Southwest Jiaotong University
Javad Lessan, University of Waterloo
In this paper we present a line planning optimization model for high-speed railway (HSR) operations that addresses the operating costs of lines and passengers’ preferences through a bi-level integer programming (IP) problem. Using actual travel data from Shenzhen-Changsha HSR in China, we investigate the passengers’ travel behavior during different time periods and between several origin and destination (OD) pairs to characterize travelers’ spatial-temporal preferences. Then an IP model is developed that maximizes the passenger Departure Time Satisfaction (DTS) degree at higher-level and the operating costs of lines at lower-level. Due to the complexity of the problem, a methodology is proposed to find a conflict-free solution for the proposed model to find trains’ frequencies in each block and their stop plans at each station between the upper- and lower-level models. It is shown that a given passenger trip demand between origin and destination could become more flexible by analyzing their time characteristics and the DTS. Finally, a case study is presented to show the effectiveness of the model and the solution approach.
Keywords：High-speed railway, Line planning problem, Bi-level model, Passenger flow-oriented