Are Immigrants Migrating Away from Transit?: Immigrant Transit Use Trends in California
Evelyn Blumenberg, University of California, Los AngelesShow Abstract
andrew schouten, Ritsumeikan University
Madeline Ruvolo, University of California, Los Angeles
Brian Taylor, University of California, Los Angeles
Public transit ridership has been declining in California and across the U.S. since 2014. Advocates, practitioners, and scholars have offered all manner of explanations for this decline. In this paper, we examine the demand-side of this conundrum by focusing on high-propensity transit riders, and, in particular, immigrants in California. Drawing on the California add-on of the 2009 and 2017 National Household Travel Surveys, we examine changes in transit use among Hispanic and Asian immigrants. Using logistic and negative binomial regression, we model two transit outcome measures—the likelihood of being a transit user and the number of transit trips on the survey day. We find significant declines in transit use among both Hispanic and Asian immigrants in California between 2009 to 2017. Controlling for a variety of factors associated with travel behavior, we find that only recent (in the U.S. < 5 years) Hispanic immigrants are more likely to use transit than their native-born counterparts. Overall, the determinants of transit use are similar for Hispanic and Asian adults regardless of nativity, suggesting that changes in the number and characteristics of immigrants likely contribute to their declining transit use. Many of the factors that influence transit use lie outside of the purview of transit agencies. Therefore, there is no easy path to increasing immigrant transit use. However, the findings suggest that built environment interventions that contribute to greater residential densities may delay travel assimilation away from transit use; so, too, may local efforts to protect and enhance Asian ethnic enclaves.
Do Immigrants in the United States Continue to Rely More on Alternative Modes of Transportation Than U.S.-Born Residents?
Sangwan Lee, Portland State UniversityShow Abstract
Michael Smart, Rutgers University
Much of the existing literature also documents that most immigrants remain at least somewhat more likely to use alternative modes, including transit, than US-born persons. However, recent changes to the transportation system and to the nature of immigration may have resulted in changes in how immigrants travel. In light of these changes, we explore whether immigrants continue to rely more on alternative transportation modes, including public transit, and new modes such as car share programs, ride share applications, and bike share programs by examining the 2017 NHTS. Our Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial regression models suggest that relative to U.S. born residents, immigrants in the U.S. use public transportation, car sharing services, bike sharing services, and smartphone rideshare apps more frequently. However, we find an independent “immigrant effect” only for the use of bike sharing services; immigrants’ increased usage of other modes can be wholly or nearly explained by other factors such as income and residential location.
A Tale of Two Limited English Proficiency Communities: Connecting Mobility Marginalized Communities via Technology
Rongfang Rachel Liu, New Jersey Institute of TechnologyShow Abstract
LIU LV, New Jersey Institute of Technology
Hindy Schachter, New Jersey Institute of Technology
Cristian Borcea, New Jersey Institute of Technology
The Census Bureau estimates that nearly 65 million Americans speak a language other than English at home, and about 40% of them, or 9% of the U.S. population, has Limited English Proficiency (LEP), which refers to individuals who do not speak English as their primary language and who have a limited ability to read, speak, write, or understand English. Language barriers prevent many LEP populations from obtaining adequate access to transportation, which affects their economic and social opportunities. This manuscript documents a recent dialog/focus group study of LEP communities in Northern New Jersey. Building on their previous research and relationship with the LEP communities, the research team has conducted several focus group discussions in order to understand issues and challenges faced by LEP communities. Despite very different demographic and social economic characteristics, it is apparent that participants in all of the focus groups are not satisfied with the current transportation, especially transit services and travel information dissemination. On the other hand, the expectations and preferences vary among various LEP groups. For example, the low-income LEP community welcomes a new app that will provide travel information as long as it is free and easy to use, and it is willing to consider ride sharing with community members. The LEP community in a more affluent suburban location tends to resist any new apps and do not want to share rides with strangers.
Residential and Daily Travel Preferences of South Asian International Students in Australia
Rahman Shafi, Monash UniversityShow Abstract
Alexa Delbosc, Monash University
Geoff Rose, Monash University
Australia’s population is growing primarily because of immigrants. Population growth is straining the country’s transportation system, yet little is known about the travel behaviors of immigrants, including Australia’s growing number of international students, many of whom hope to stay and make Australia their home. Prior Australian research has found travel habit differences between native-borns and immigrants. While researchers elsewhere, particularly from the United States, emphasize on socio-economic factors to explain these differences, such has been found to not be the case in Australia. The study focuses on international students in Australia; focus groups were undertaken amongst domestic and international, South Asian students attending Monash University. The script was semi-structured and open-ended, encouraging discussions and participants to share their stories. New insights into transit and car use were noted, including carpooling and carsharing. There were also differences in mobility choices between the groups. For South Asians, living with friends or family in an area reminding them of home was preferred; however, this often resulted in longer travel times and poorer transit connectivity. For Australians, trying to live near their daily destination or in an area with good transit was preferred. Despite the two groups having different mobility preferences, common concerns focused on present-day limitations of transit with a clear indication that may lead to them pursuing a car-dependent lifestyle in the future. International students have potential to be the agents of change towards less car-dependent lifestyles, and their behavior need to be better understood by policymakers and transport planners.
The Role of Transportation, Urban Amenities, and Life Cycle on the Residential Location Choice of Young Adults
Jaeyong Shin, University of Illinois, ChicagoShow Abstract
Nebiyou Tilahun, University of Illinois, Chicago
This study examines the changing residential location choice behavior of young adults (18-35 years old) and older adults (36 and older) at two different time points. Comparisons are made within in these cohorts at two different time points (2001 and 2011) and between the two age cohorts. The study used national data from 70 metropolitan statistical areas in the United States. The role that different urban amenities, neighborhood transportation variables, life cycle, and other neighborhood variables play in the decision making are explored. We also examine period effects which may correspond to the changing tastes of today’s young adults as compared to their counterparts a decade ago. Principal component analysis is used to reduce the dimensions of urban neighborhood variables into a few variables. A multinomial residential choice logit model is then estimated to analyze neighborhood choice. The results show that a host of different neighborhood variables affect the residential choice and demonstrate a period effect where young adults favor areas with more transit and nonmotorized mode use. Life-cycle effects such as the presence of children as well as auto-ownership counteract these preferences.
The Role of Public Transit in School Choice and After-School Activity Participation: A Study of Toronto Area High School Students
Matthew Palm, University of Toronto, ScarboroughShow Abstract
Steven Farber, University of Toronto, Scarborough
Transportation plays a growing role in the ability of students to access educational opportunities as communities continue to sprawl and school systems adopt policies that diversify students’ school attendance options. This study models the impacts of household transportation resources on two education related outcomes: after-school activity participation and enrollment in a non-local high school. We model after-school activity participation across the Greater Toronto Area through probit regression, identifying a significant effect of public transit accessibility on a high school student’s likelihood of participating in an after-school activity. We conduct a similar analysis predicting the likelihood that a student attends a non-local high school in the City of Toronto, wherein over 60% of students attend one of several alternatives to local designated high schools. Finally, we conduct a biprobit Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) on both outcomes to account for unobserved student and household characteristics that influence both outcomes. Our results suggest that household transit accessibility significantly impact students’ participation in after-school activities and enrollment in non-local schools. We contend that while transportation resources may not be the most significant factors influencing these outcomes, transportation plays a significant enough role in students’ ability to access educational opportunities to warrant thoughtful attention by policymakers.
Thoughts for Food in Older Age: A Qualitative Study on Factors Influencing Online Grocery Shopping and Mode Choice for In-Person Grocery Shopping
Ana Bezirgani, University of QuebecShow Abstract
Lachapelle Ugo, University of Quebec
Older adults are prone to modal shifts, and online shopping is a promising option. The objective of this research was to understand whether older adults perceive online groceries as attractive options, as compared to travel mode use to access groceries in-person. This study analyzed the relationship between current food shopping patterns, and the underlying motives to use travel modes for grocery shopping or to shop online. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with retired individuals. Based on the theory of planned behavior, participants were asked about their food shopping habits, and about the advantages/disadvantages, the social norms, and the facilitating factors/barriers to travel to food stores, and to shop online. Results revealed similarities between car drivers and online shoppers. Both were organized, shopped in bulk and were regular store visitors. While advantages and facilitating factors were comparable in online shopping and car driving, barriers to car driving were the costs and the risks of accidents or injury. Online shopping was not intended because participants lacked trust and familiarity with the service. Public transit (PT) and active mode users were spontaneous and irregular shoppers, who viewed in-person shopping as physical and social activities. The use of alternative travel modes was supported by physical fitness, connectivity, proximity and the availability of delivery options. To achieve modal shifts in older age, travel habits must be addressed simultaneously with grocery shopping habits. Car drivers are more likely to adopt online services than PT or active mode users, who may prefer delivery after in-person shopping.
Factors Affecting Parental Safety Perception, Satisfaction with School Travel and Mood in Primary School Children in the Netherlands
Pauline van den Berg, Technische Universiteit, EindhovenShow Abstract
E. Owen Waygood, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal
Iris van de Craats, Hevo
Astrid Kemperman, Technische Universiteit, Eindhoven
An increasing number of studies in transportation research have recently focused on well-being and travel satisfaction. These studies argue that satisfaction with travel is an indicator of the trip’s contribution to subjective wellbeing of the traveler. Although the attention on satisfaction with travel is increasing, relatively few studies have considered satisfaction with travel of children. As children’s travel is strongly linked to distance and the built environment, they would be important additional considerations to such research. Therefore, this study looks into the household, built environment and trip characteristics influencing satisfaction with travel and mood among Dutch children attending primary school. Additionally, the study considers the mediating effect of parental safety perception on satisfaction with travel and the relationship between satisfaction with travel and mood. In order to study these relationships, survey data were collected in the Netherlands from 660 children (7 - 12 years) and their parents. The data were analyzed using a path analysis. Findings show that parental safety perceptions are related to the age of the child, income, perceptions of neighborhood infrastructure and social cohesion. Satisfaction with school travel is higher when parental safety perception is higher, when it is sunny, when traveling with a friend and when travelling by bike when this is the favorite transport mode. Satisfaction with travel is related to children reporting a better mood. These insights can be used by policy makers to create safe school environments stimulating active travel, which in turn will improve satisfaction with travel, well-being and health among primary school-going children.
Factors Associated with Travel Behavior of Millennials and Older Adults: A Scoping Review
Shaila Jamal, McMaster UniversityShow Abstract
Bruce Newbold, McMaster University
This study aims to synthesize knowledge on the travel behavior of millennials and older adults based on literature from 2010 to 2018. The current study not only reviews the literature on young and older adults’ travel behavior but also provides a comparison of travel behaviors and associated factors between the two generations. The study looks into the different factors that contributed to shaping each generation’s travel behavior. Both qualitative and quantitative studies that fall within the selection criteria are reviewed, with a total of seventy-eight studies selected for review. Thirty-four papers focused on young adults/ millennials, 35 included an older adult population, and 9 investigated both younger and older age groups. Six of the studies utilized qualitative methods, 68 applied quantitative methods, and 4 used mixed methods to explore the factors associated with travel behavior. Travel behaviors are explored in terms of mode choice, trip distance, trip frequency, use of alternative transport, ridesharing, and mobility tool ownership. Associated factors are categorized into three themes: geography and built environment, living arrangement and family life, and technology adoption. This study concludes that difference exists between generations in terms of travel behavior and factors that influence each generation’s travel characteristics are either different or differ in their nature of influence (e.g. increase/decrease). Finally, based on the reviewed literature, this study proposes future research directions
What Factors Contribute to Higher Travel Happiness?: Evidence from Beijing, China
aihua Fan, Xuchang UniversityShow Abstract
Xumei Chen, Beijing Jiaotong University
Xiaomei Zhang, Beijing Jiaotong University
Travel happiness has drawn increasing attentions in recent years. However, the empirical research in China’s context is very limited and few studies consider both cognitive and affective evaluations of travel quality. This study uses web-based survey data collected in Beijing, China and applies multiple regression analysis to examine impacts of personal characteristics, travel characteristics, residential environment, mode consonance, self-evaluation, and health conditions, on travel happiness. Satisfaction with Travel Scale (STS) is used to measure travel happiness including cognitive and affective evaluations. Nine travel modes (walk, public bicycle, private bicycle, e-cycling, car driver, car passenger, shuttle bus, bus, and subway) are included. Results show that e-cycling has the highest travel happiness ratings, followed by walk, shuttle bus, public bike, and private bike, while public transport (bus and subway) trips have the lowest happiness and automobile trips (car driver and car passenger) lie between active travel modes and public transport in reported happiness. Transport mode consonance is positively correlated with travel happiness. In multiple regression analysis, residential environment, optimism, and daily happiness have great positive impacts on travel happiness. Living in suburban area is more satisfying for walk and car trips but travel frequency, duration, and traveling longer than expected have significant negative effects on travel happiness. Public transport use with friends is enjoyable, but unpleasant with work partners. Other findings such as more happiness with listening to music/radio or reading during traveling and inconsistence between cognitive and affective evaluations are demonstrated. Finally, policy implications and potential extended research topics are recommended.
Views from the Other Side of the Road: Exploring Public Attitudes Toward Autonomous Vehicles
Thomas Norton, Arup Group LtdShow Abstract
Melissa Ruhl, Ford Motor Company
Tim Armitage, Arup Group Ltd
Brian Matthews, Arup Group Ltd
John Miles, University of Cambridge
The development of autonomous vehicles (AVs) is advancing quickly in some enclaves around the world. Consequently, AVs exist in the public consciousness, featuring regularly in mainstream media. As the form and function of AVs emerges, the attitudes of potential users become more important. The extent to which the public trusts AV technology and anticipates benefits will drive consumer willingness to use AVs. More broadly, public attitudes will determine whether AVs can attract public investment in infrastructure and become a feature of the future transport mix or fail to realize the potential their developers profess. As part of UK Autodrive, a program trialing the introduction of AVs in the United Kingdom (UK), researchers conducted focus groups in five UK cities, and a comparison focus group in San Francisco between December 2017 and September 2018 using representative samples (total n = 137). Focus group facilitators guided participants in discussing three areas thought to be central to usage decisions: trust in the technology, ownership models, and community benefit. This research generated three key takeaways centering on trust in the technology and trust to deliver benefit. First, some focus group participants gained trust through experience and others through evidence. Second, participants had difficulty discriminating between AV developers, indicating a need for industry cooperation. Third, partnerships demonstrated trust, highlighting the need for more and deeper partnerships moving forward. Generally, participants had a positive attitude towards AVs and expected AVs to provide benefit. However, these attitudes and expectations could change quickly as AV development progresses.
Exploring the Causes of Mobility-Related Social Exclusion for Non-Motorized Households
Dominic Villeneuve, Université LavalShow Abstract
Vincent Kaufmann, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL)
Using a lexicometric and qualitative data analysis of 57 semi-directed interviews with members of non-motorized households in the urban areas of Quebec City (Canada) and Strasbourg (France), this paper seeks to find out whether living in a carless household in a car-dependent environment may play a role in the feelings of social exclusion and if so, what are the causing elements. Unfortunately, overall a majority of respondents say they are experiencing this form of exclusion. We found several aggravating factors. The lack of inclusion of non-motorized households in the planningplanning process for transport and mobility policy-makingpolicy making appears to be an important factor. In addition, many respondents perceived that they were not on an equal footing with motoristsmotorists when it came to policy decisions. There is also sometimes negative judgment and misunderstanding from motorized people they interact with, for example in the workplace. Some feel excluded from the labour market by this lack of car-ownership, while others say they are excluded from social functions that take place late in the evening due to shortfalls in the public transitpublic transit schedules. The fact of not having accessaccess to certain places that one wants to frequent also comes up commonly as elements of the answer. And, a fact peculiar to Quebec City, the negative discourse towards non-motorized households, conveyed by local radio stations, often described as “trash radiosradios”, also seems to lead to a form of exclusion linked to mobility.
Do I Need to Bring a Car?: An Exploratory Qualitative Analysis of Online Transportation Discussions
Evan Iacobucci, Rutgers UniversityShow Abstract
Complex problems associated with overdependence on automobiles demand understanding of transportation behavior dynamics. While a vast repository of quantitative work documents many aspects of transportation behavior, like correlations between rates of driving and land use characteristics, a granular understanding of how and why people make transportation choices is lacking. How do people plan their transportation arrangements, insofar as they plan them at all? How exactly is it that people’s transportation patterns come to be defined? This study explores the processes of forming these travel patterns, using qualitative content analysis to observe communication about making transportation decisions on a granular and individual level, in particular about decisions to live without depending on a car. Specifically, it asks the following research questions: 1. What is the content of actual conversations about living car-free or -light in an American city offering reasonable modal choice? 2. What circumstances and factors are associated with transportation behavioral development and/or change? It analyzes found data from Reddit, a popular social content-sharing site. Exploratory content analysis was performed on 713 comments in 13 threads discussing living car-free in Minneapolis, MN. The discussion about living car-free is pragmatic: People discuss importance of location, what non-car modes to use, and share personal experiences and strategies for living without a car. The discussion is consistent with land use influencing transportation decisions, exhibiting a causal effect on transportation behavior, and with transportation behavior being habitual in nature. Results are contextualized and evaluated in context of existing transportation behavior scholarship.
Assessing Impacts of Urban New Park Development on Traffic and Environment of Surrounding Community
Fengxiang Qiao, Texas Southern University
Hanzhen Wang, Texas Southern University
Bridging the Transportation Divide
Jacqueline Kuzio, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
Incorporating State-of-the-Practice Economic Valuation into the CIA Process
Steven Bert, Institute for Transportation Research and Education
Market Acceptance of Autonomous Vehicles in Transportation Disadvantaged Areas: Implications for Policy and Planning
Konstantina Gkritza, Purdue University
Christos Gkartzonikas, Purdue University
Lisa Lorena Losada Rojas, Purdue University
Geographical Information Systems-Based Evacuation Analysis of Vulnerable Communities in the Florida Panhandle: A Case Study of Hurricane Michael
Mahyar Ghorbanzadeh, Florida A&M University-Florida State University College of Engineering
Eren Ozguven, Florida A&M University-Florida State University College of Engineering
Simone Burns, Florida A&M University
Assessing Community Impacts of Infill Development in Urban Dense Residential Areas
Fengxiang Qiao, Texas Southern University
Lijie Zhou, Texas Southern University
Impact Assessment of Traffic Noise on Community Environment Under Various Acoustic Barriers During Urban Infill Development Process
Boya You, Texas Southern University
Fengxiang Qiao, Texas Southern University
Qing Li, Texas Department of Transportation
Lei Yu, Texas Southern University
Wu Ying, AECOM
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