New developments in plow routing, lighting for plow safety, snow fencing, and protecting salt-vulnerable areas
Enhanced Roadside Drainage System for Protection of Salt Vulnerable Areas
Sepideh Emami Tabrizi (email@example.com), University of GuelphShow Abstract
Arman Amouzadeh, University of Guelph
Hani Farghaly, Ontario Ministry of Transportation
Bahram Gharabaghi, University of Guelph
De-icing road salt application for winter road maintenance is a standard practice in Canada. However, high-chloride concentrations in highway runoff can have adverse effects on both surface and groundwater quality. Enhanced Roadside Drainage System (ERDS) with membrane linings can protect the groundwater by restricting infiltration. The ERDS underground storage captures highway runoff within the bioretention cell for controlled release to mitigate chloride-shock to the aquatic life in the receiving water course. This study was designed to monitor and model the ERDS performance using the Stormwater Management Model (PCSWMM). The 60-m long bioretention-cell was installed in the roadside ditch along Provincial Highway 412 near Whitby, Ontario. The hourly rainfall intensity data from the Environment Canada Oshawa station ID 6155875 and the road salts application data was collected from the Ontario Ministry of Transportation (MTO). The PCSWMM model was developed for two different scenarios, including with and without the ERDS to assess the benefits of the bioretention cell. The model PCSWMM was calibrated and validated against the site monitoring data (31 events June 2019 – May 2020). The result showed both discharge and the salt flux would drop by six folds which is a major benefit to the aquatic habitat suitability in the receiving stream (Lynde Creek).
Evaluating Costs and Benefits of Snow Fences in Illinois
Shambhu Baral, Southern Illinois University, EdwardsvilleShow Abstract
Yan Qi (firstname.lastname@example.org), Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville
Pranesh Biswas, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville
Blowing and drifting snow is a major issue on roadways along open areas in high latitude and (or) high altitude regions. Properly sited and designed snow fences have been proven effective in control blowing snow. They can also yield safety, societal, and environmental benefits. Very few studies have been done to quantify and evaluate snow fence costs and benefits. Aimed to fill the knowledge gap, this study conducted benefit-cost analyses of the Living Snow fence, Structural Snow Fence, and Standing Corn Rows through a case study and compared the three alternatives. Besides installation and maintenance costs, farming land rental, inconvenience cost, and production reduction were also considered in the study. The benefits considered include snow removal cost saving, travel time saving, crash reduction, and emission reduction. The net present value and benefit-cost ratio were used in the analyses. The results showed that the LSF option is comparable to SSF. But considering the environmental benefits that are not included in the study, LSF is a favorable option over SSF. The SCR turns out to be the most economical effective among the three alternatives. But the need to renew the agreements between landowners and agencies annually and the alternating of different crops planted in the farming land may limit the large-scale implementation of this type of snow control.
Integrating Connected Vehicle Data in Road Network Weather Management Systems: Snowplow Routing Application
Eunhye Kim, Northwestern UniversityShow Abstract
Hani Mahmassani, Northwestern University
A focus of road network weather management systems is on integrating emerging communication technologies into transportation agencies’ weather-responsive efforts in order to enhance their effectiveness and efficiency. An important opportunity and challenge is to bring connected vehicle (CV)-enabled technology elements into real-time operational decisions for weather-responsive management strategies. The objective of this study is to assess the benefit of incoming data from CVs running on a network in a weather-responsive management system. The paper includes a framework for implementing an AMS system to support WRMS applications on CV-enabled road networks. Using the Chicago testbed network, the study demonstrates improvements in estimation and prediction that enable several dynamic management applications at a network level. Focusing on snowplow operations as a specific management application, practical approaches are developed to support operational decisions for their specific sites, strategies, and conditions based on on-line, real-time data and forecasts. The test outcomes show that real-time CV data can contribute to providing timely and disaggregated traffic states of the network under consideration, and to monitoring ongoing snowplow operations and performance.
Effectiveness of Green Warning Lights with Different Flashing Patterns for Winter Maintenance Operations
Fatemeh Fakhrmoosavi, Michigan State UniversityShow Abstract
Ramin Saedi, Purdue University
Farish Jazlan, Michigan State University
Ali Zockaie (email@example.com), Michigan State University
Mehrnaz Ghamami, Michigan State University
Timothy Gates, Michigan State University
Peter Savolainen, Michigan State University
Snow removal activities are performed by roadway agencies to enhance winter mobility and safety. Due to slower travel speeds during these operations, combined with low visibility and reduced pavement friction, safety and collision avoidance remains a persistent concern. Many studies have implemented signing and lighting technologies to improve the visibility of snowplows. Although a few studies have evaluated the use of different colors on snowplows, there is no rigorous study that evaluates the potential impacts of using green warning lights for winter maintenance operations. Thus, this study investigates the impacts of various warning light configurations on the visibility of snowplows, with the focus on green lights. To this end, 37 warning light configurations are designed using various color combinations (green and amber), and flashing patterns (single and quad) on the back side (LED) and/or top (beacon) of snowplows. These configurations are evaluated to identify the most effective configurations. Three sets of experiments are designed and implemented: static, dynamic, and weather to evaluate the visibility effectiveness in different contexts: day versus night, clear versus snowy weather, and static versus dynamic scenarios. Human subjects are employed to conduct the experiments and the test results are evaluated using statistical analyses. The conspicuity during the day time and glare during the night time are statistically different among various configurations. In addition, adding green lights with a single flash pattern to amber warning lights improves the conspicuity, while keeping the glare at an acceptable level relative to configurations using only amber.
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