IMPACT OF TRUCK PLATOONING ON PASSING SIGHT DISTANCE OF
TWO-LANE HIGHWAYS IN NORTH AMERICA
Tanvir Chowdhury, York UniversityShow Abstract
Peter Park (email@example.com), York University
This study investigates the impact of heavy commercial vehicle (HCV) platooning on passing sight distance (PSD) on two-lane rural highways in North America. HCV platooning can reduce and maintain the gaps between HCVs with measurable benefits in reduced fuel consumption and emissions due to decreased aerodynamic drag. Machine drivers will also help to alleviate the truck driver shortage problem in North America. PSD is an important highway geometric design parameter used to provide sufficient distance for overtaking. The study proposed an analytical model called a modified 2018 AASHTO model and a micro-simulation model to assess the impact of HCV platooning as well as long combination vehicles (LCVs) on PSD. The findings suggest that two-HCV platooning may be feasible on certain two-lane rural highways currently used by LCVs especially if additional passing lanes are provided. The study, however, shows that providing sufficient PSD for passing a three-HCV platoon will be very challenging. We hope the study approach and findings can help transportation engineers who need to screen two-lane rural highway corridors for future HCV platooning operations.
Optimization of Overweight Truck Impact on Roadway Network with Minimum Cost Method: A Case Study in Louisiana
Yilong Liu, Louisiana Department of Transportation and DevelopmentShow Abstract
Md Golam Sobhani, Louisiana State University
Zhong Wu, Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development
This study presented an optimization method based on the Dijkstra’s algorithm for minimizing the overall pavement infrastructure damage due to the impact of overweight trucks in a roadway network. A case study using the roadway network and existing pavement structure conditions in Caddo district of Louisiana was then performed. In general, two scenarios of the overweight truck trips were simulated within a selected roadway network: (a) based on the shortest path, and (b) based on a minimum pavement damage path. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to obtain the average damage cost and average vehicle miles travelled of these two scenarios. The weak roadway segments with most damage costs were also identified with the shortest path method, and the effect of improving these segments was examined by numerical simulation. The simulation results indicated that the average impact of overweight trucks was significantly reduced by selecting truck routes based on the minimum damage cost method. The damage costs with shortest path method can also be effectively controlled by improving the detected weakest segments. It can be concluded that the methodology developed in this research could play an important role in regulating the heavy truck routes and optimizing the roadway system.
Impact of Traffic Loading on Pavement Performance: Traditional Regression Model and Machine Learning Method
Jingnan Zhao, Rutgers UniversityShow Abstract
Hao Wang (firstname.lastname@example.org), Rutgers University
Pan Lu, North Dakota State University
This study aims to use traditional regression model and machine learning method to quantify the impact of traffic loading on pavement performance using pavement condition data in pavement management systems (PMS) and axle loads of truck traffic collected at weigh-in-motion (WIM) stations. Support vector regression (SVR) method was selected since it provides the flexibility to find the appropriate hyperplane in higher dimensions to regress the data and customize control errors in an acceptable range. Compared to nonlinear regression model, the accuracy of pavement performance prediction was significantly increased by utilizing the SVR method. The model accuracy was further improved by considering the number of axle load and fitted Gaussian distribution of axle load spectra in the performance model. The derived SVR models were used to investigate the impact of overweight truck on pavement life reduction considering characteristics of axle load distributions. The proposed pavement performance model can be further used in determining pavement damage caused by overweight trucks for pavement rehabilitation strategy and permit fee analysis.
Comparison of Two Alternative Collaboration and Profit-Sharing Methods for Less-than-Truckload Carriers
Bhavya Padmanabhan, University of South CarolinaShow Abstract
Nathan Huynh (email@example.com), University of South Carolina
William Ferrell, Clemson University
Vishal Badyal, Clemson University
This study examines two methods of collaboration and profit-sharing for less-than-truckload (LTL) carriers. The collaboration methods are evaluated under the scenario that all participating carriers share some or all of their pickup and delivery jobs with a central authority who will assign jobs to carriers and determine optimal vehicle routes to maximize profit. The novelty of this work is that it allows carriers to retain some of their jobs. Method-1 is a two-step approach where the central authority first determines the job allocation for the shared jobs and the vehicle routes for each carrier that includes their retained and allocated jobs to maximize total profit. Then, the total profit is fairly divided among the carriers using a contribution-based profit-sharing model. Method-2 is a one-step approach where the central authority simultaneously determines the job allocation/vehicle routes and allocates profit to the carriers with fairness constraints included in the model. Mathematical models are proposed for both methods. The numerical experiment results indicate that the total profit from Method-1 is 1.2% to 9.9% higher than that of Method-2.
On the Stabilizing Effect of Implementing Weight Stations on Truck Equivalency Factors for Pavement Design
Jaime ALLEN, Universidad de Costa RicaShow Abstract
Ana Vargas-Sobrado, Universidad de Costa Rica
Jose Aguiar-Moya, Universidad de Costa Rica
Henry Henrnandez-Vega, Universidad de Costa Rica
In Costa Rica, weight stations for trucks and commercial vehicles were reinstated into service in 2008. Since the implementation of this control for freight vehicles, a stabilizing trend in the percentage of heavy vehicles with excess loading was observed. For pavement design purposes, this resulted in the stabilization of the truck equivalency factors. These findings were statistically validated by processing all the weight data collected at different stations located in the national road network between 2008 and 2011. By running linear regressions, we obtain results that indicate that given a constant percentage of noncompliance, the truck equivalency factor for C2, C3, and T3-S2 vehicles tend to the stabilized values of 0.20, 0.66, 1.19, respectively. These results concur with additional power regressions performed on the data. Furthermore, extra weighing enforcements for the T3-S3 vehicle’s tandem axle could result in a 0.17 decrease on the truck equivalency factor. In future research, disaggregated data trends will be analyzed along with temporal variations. Results herein should also benefit countries that have yet to implement weighing stations.
Truck-Service Visibility in Emerging Markets: Willingness to Pay, Reputability and Public Policy
Rodrigo Mesa-Arango (firstname.lastname@example.org), Florida Institute of TechnologyShow Abstract
Carlos Hernandez, Universidad de Los Andes
Gordon Wilmsmeier, Universidad de Los Andes
Agustina Calatayud, Inter-American Development Bank
This paper investigates the role of reputability and public policy on the shipper’s willingness to pay for visibility features in an emerging market. In recent years, vehicle visibility has penetrated rapidly into business thanks to geographic positioning systems (GPS) devices, which allow trucking companies (carriers) to enhance their operations while adding value to their customers (shippers). Although this trend is clear for developed nations, the level of visibility penetration and its impact on the procurement of trucking services in emergent markets remains uncertain. This research provides the first approximation towards elucidating these elements by conducting a detailed investigation in Colombia, an emerging market in the Americas where trucking is a concern. The investigation is conducted through focus-group meetings, interviews, a stated preference survey, and a discrete-choice experiment on 129 shippers. The focus-group meetings and interviews reveal high levels of penetration of visibility technologies in Colombia, mostly required due to insurability requirements. The stated-preference discrete-choice experiment revealed the high impact of price over truck-service selection as well as high valuations on visibility technologies (GPS and geofencing) and carrier reputation (good/bad). Other features that are significant but provide lower value to shippers include the provision of sensors, driving reports, and security guards (armed, unarmed). The implication of these results on business and policymaking are thoroughly discussed in the paper.
Using Probe Data for Truck Parking Decision-Making
Nicole Katsikides, Texas A&M Transportation InstituteShow Abstract
David Schrank, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
Xiaoqiang Kong, Texas A&M University, College Station
Brittney Gick, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
The goal of this research was to understand how public agencies, specifically state Departments of Transportation (DOTs) can use truck probe data defensibly to illustrate truck parking issues. There are some studies in the literature that used truck probe data based on Global Positioning System (GPS) points to assess demand and areas of unauthorized parking. These studies demonstrated some of the challenges and opportunities in using probe data for truck parking. The concepts and uses, however, appear opportunistic because DOTs commonly have access to data suites to support their performance, planning and operations analyses. This research focuses on a state’s desire to use its data to understand truck parking using the resources and tools a state DOT may typically have in-house to efficiently and defensibly assess truck parking. This analysis uses INRIX Trip data from the Maryland Department of Transportation (MDOT), as well as geospatial, database and analytical tools such as ArcGIS and Tableau to illustrate truck parking. Analytics include assessing counts and parking duration, utilization and capacity, origins and destinations and performance statistics for state lots. Results show that it is possible to defensibly use probe data to illustrate truck parking demand, including links to supply chains, and develop performance information. This information can be to plan truck parking expansion or apply Transportation System Management and Operations (TSMO) approaches and inform freight stakeholders.
"Invited Student: Hours of Service, Safety, and Supply Chain Management
Patrick Stanley, North Carolina A&T State UniversityShow Abstract
The strong economy has created the demand for flexible trucking capacity. Supply chain networks are dependent upon trucking to transport raw materials to production facilities and finished products to market. However, along with the growth, truck driver detention has increased. Truck driver detention increased from 2014 to 2018. Detention has a negative effect on operator hours of service, safety, and supply chain efficiency. Detention results in late deliveries and disruptions for supply chain networks with varying effects. Carriers lose profits because the trucks are not available to make subsequent deliveries and pickups and the effect cascades down the supply chain. Safety risks become higher because drivers may attempt to violate hours of service rules to make up for productivity and compensation losses. There are different causes for detention and surveys and studies have been conducted to quantify, analyze, and resolve detention. However, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration does not view detention as being worth the time and cost to study. This paper’s focus will be on how detention affects hours of service, safety, and the potential effects it has on supply chain management.
The Impact of Nuclear Verdicts on the Trucking Industry
Nathan Williams, American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI)Show Abstract
Daniel Murray, American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI)
Erin Speltz, American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI)
Large legal verdicts have been on the rise in the United States. To identify how different factors impact the size of verdicts in the trucking industry, the American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI) compiled a database of 600 truck-involved crash verdicts. Using this data, relationships between verdict size and various crash-related factors were estimated and analyzed. These statistical methods indicate that the size and frequency of large verdicts has been rising over time, and different crash-related factors play a statistically relevant role in the size of the verdict. These findings document that, on average, large verdicts are increasing at a rate of 51.7 percent per year. Life-altering injuries, like traumatic brain injuries, increase the size of verdicts by approximately $770,000. When children are either injured or killed in the crash, the verdict size increases by $27 million per child. These findings suggest that the size of large verdicts are increasing, and that certain litigation-related factors impact the respective size of these verdicts.
COVID-19 Impacts on the Trucking Industry
Daniel Murray, American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI)Show Abstract
Nathan Williams, American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI)
Thomas Weakley, Owner-Operator Independent Drivers Association Foundation, Inc. (OOIDA)
Andrew King, Owner-Operator Independent Drivers Association Foundation, Inc. (OOIDA)
The primary objective of this research was to understand the immediate operational impacts that the COVID-19 pandemic had on trucking operations in the United States. The American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI) and the Owner-Operator Independent Driver Association (OOIDA) Foundation developed a collaborative research methodology for ascertaining pandemic effects on supply chains, trucking operations and truck drivers in particular. ATRI and OOIDA jointly developed a trucking industry survey that identified a range of operational and financial issues that were being impacted by the pandemic. The survey was designed to obtain the perspectives of multiple labor categories in trucking, from truck drivers to dispatchers to senior executives. The survey generated approximately 5,100 usable responses. Findings revealed that average trip lengths decreased during the pandemic, while truck travel speeds at the worst traffic chokepoints increased due to reduced congestion as motorists sheltered in place. Freight levels were also impacted, with certain sectors of the industry experiencing both dramatic decreases and increases in specific commodity volumes during the pandemic. The survey analysis also revealed that small fleets were not prepared for a significant impact on their operations. Nearly 80 percent of owner-operators and fleets with fewer than five power units reported that they did not have any disaster plan in place prior to COVID-19, whereas 70 percent of large fleets reported that they had business continuity plans in place. This lack of preplanning provides an opportunity for operational “best practices” research to inform disaster planning for small fleets going forward.
A Framework to Quantify the Reduction of Pavement Service Life in Overload Corridors using Portable Weigh-In-Motion Data
Ali Morovatdar, University of Texas, El PasoShow Abstract
Reza Ashtiani, University of Texas, El Paso
Enad Mahmoud, Texas Department of Transportation
Recent traffic patterns show an alarming increase in the Over-Weight (OW) truck operations in overload corridors, resulting in substantial loss of service life of transportation facilities. Quantification of such detrimental impacts remains a challenging undertaking for the stakeholders due to the absence of a uniform framework to assess the imparted damages. This study was designed to bridge this gap by establishing an analysis platform for mechanistic characterization of remaining service life (RSL) of the pavements subjected to OW traffic loading conditions, considering the environmental impacts and unique features of transportation facilities. To accomplish this objective, initially, the authors collected site-specific axle load spectra (ALS) by deploying Portable Weight-in-Motion (P-WIM) devices to ten representative sites in overload corridors in Texas. Subsequently, the P-WIM traffic data, back-calculated layer moduli and layer configurations from field non-destructive testing, as well as climate information were incorporated in the developed framework to estimate the RSL of pavements. Additionally, a novel approach was proposed to assess the reduction of service life of pavements with considerations of the demanding loading scenarios, type of transportation facilities, and environmental impacts. The results underscored the significance of the type of transportation facilities in damage quantification protocol as the Farm-to-Market roads, with less robust pavement structural capacity, experienced substantially higher “reduction of service life” compared to State and US highways. Comparisons of the post-processed results with field distress measurements revealed that the proposed framework has the potential for realistic assessment of the incremental progression of distresses over the design life of pavements.
Identification of Potential Freight Parking Locations in Urban Areas
Glenn Vorhes, University of Wisconsin, MadisonShow Abstract
Ernest Perry, University of Wisconsin, Madison
Soyoung Ahn, University of Wisconsin, Madison
Truck parking is an important element of the United States’ transportation system as it provides truckers with safe places to rest and stage for deliveries. Demand for truck parking spaces exceeds supply and shortages are especially common in and around urban areas. Freight operations are negatively affected as truck drivers are unable to park in logistically ideal locations due insufficient capacity or nonexistent facilities. Drivers may resort to unsafe practices such as parking on ramps or in abandoned lots. This report seeks to examine the potential parking availability of vacant urban parcels by establishing a methodology to identify parcels and examining whether the identified parcels are suitable for truck parking. Previous research has demonstrated that affordable, accessible parcels are available to accommodate truck parking. When used in conjunction with other policies, adaptation of urban sites could help reduce the frequency and severity of truck parking shortages. Parcel data was obtained for one urban area in each of the ten America Association of Transportation Officials region states. Area and proximity filters were applied followed by spectral analysis of satellite imagery to identify candidate parcels for truck parking facilities within urban areas. The automated processes created a ranked short list of potential parcels from which those best suited for truck parking could be efficiently identified for inspection by satellite imagery. This process resulted in a manageable number of parcels to be evaluated further by local knowledge metrics such as availability and cost, existing infrastructure and municipal connections, and safety.
Considering Alternatives for Extended Tractor-Trailer Parking on Rural Interstates
Kathleen Hancock, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)Show Abstract
Michael Glass, Virginia Department of Transportation
Demand for extended truck parking facilities exceeds supply, creating a parking deficit. This deficit, in combination with federal trucking regulations, results in drivers being unable to find parking. Meant to serve as a low-cost, interim solution, the Virginia Department of Transportation created a pilot program to designate parking at acceptable on-ramps along I-81. This review provides background information and recommendations to support informed decisions about implementation. Hours of service regulation impacts, freight trends, and legislation affecting the trucking industry were reviewed as was literature related to use of interstate ramp parking in the United States. Neighboring states were contacted to determine their use of interstate ramp parking. Finally, crash data for on-ramps along the I-81 corridor was examined for potential safety concerns. Considerations for the implementation process were developed and corresponding guidelines are provided. Findings suggest that no state has implemented this concept. Survey responses reinforce findings from the literature, with perceived safety and maintenance concerns being the top reasons for not implementing on-ramp parking. Analysis of crash data indicates that crashes, particularly those involving large trucks, on interstate on-ramps are less severe than publicly perceived, mostly resulting in property-damage-only (PDO). Considerations for implementation include traffic volumes, longitudinal and lateral offsets, termination location, parking stall dimensions, appropriate signing/pavement markings, security infrastructure, and the possibility of linking personal video systems to a traffic operations center. The benefit of implementation is increased interim extended truck parking capacity at lower implementation costs. A potential consequence of implementation is personal and traffic safety concerns.
Examining the Potential of Autonomous Trucks in a Less-than-Truckload Context
Lama Al Hajj Hassan, Northwestern UniversityShow Abstract
Hani Mahmassani, Northwestern University
Mike Hewitt, Loyola University
This paper studies the long-haul consolidated freight service network design problem and examines the impact of driver work rules and regulations on network planning. Driver rules are relaxed to estimate their opportunity cost and to examine the changes to the network structure. By relaxing driver related constraints, we seek to derive insights regarding the potential gains of autonomous truck (AT) deployment. A modified service network design formulation is presented and tested. The paper models trips that require sleeper teams, trips with multiple drivers on board one truck. The results show that the driver return to domicile requirement has a more significant contribution to cost than the hour of service regulations. Under the current fully manual fleet situation, the driver cost is the main determinant of routing choice compared to the other cost components (vehicle, fuel and handling costs). Results suggest that the potential savings to be achieved with autonomous truck deployment are both monetary and possibly environmental with the reduction of empty miles traveled.
Analysis of Overweight Truck Permit Policy in New Jersey
Sami Demiroluk, AgileAssets, Inc.Show Abstract
Hani Nassif, Rutgers University
Kaan Ozbay, New York University
Chaekuk Na, Rutgers University
The roadway infrastructure constantly deteriorates and other factors such as exposure to heavy trucks only increase the rate of deterioration. Hence, the decision-makers are constantly searching for ways to optimize the allocation of the limited funds for the repair, maintenance, and rehabilitation of the roadway infrastructure. NJ legislation requires operators of overweight (OW) trucks to obtain a permit to use the infrastructure. The agency issues a variety of permits based on the types of goods carried. These permits allow OW trucks to use the infrastructure either for a single trip or multiple trips. Hence, one major concern is whether the permit revenue of the agency can actually recoup the cost of the actual damage incurred on the infrastructure due to these OW trucks. This study investigated whether NJDOT’s current permit fee program can collect enough revenue to meet the actual cost of damage to the infrastructure caused by the heavy-weight permit trucks. The infrastructure damage was estimated by using pavement and bridge deterioration models and the permit data from 2013 to 2018 containing vehicle configuration and their route. The analysis indicated that while the cost of infrastructure damage can be recovered for certain permit types, there is a room for improvement in the permit program. Moreover, based on the permit rules in other states, the overall rank of the NJ permit program was evaluated, and possible revisions were recommended for the future permit policy.
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