New mobility options such as ride-hailing and e-commerce are disrupting urban mobility patterns and changing the way we plan around public transport. This session will explore changes in transportation policy and planning and the impacts of new mobility adoption in developing countries, with case studies from Latin America and the Caribbean, South and East Asia, and the Middle East.
Direct Costs of Congestion in Latin America
Santiago Sanchez-Gonzalez, Inter-American Development BankShow Abstract
Felipe Bedoya-Maya (email@example.com), Inter-American Development Bank
Agustina Calatayud, Inter-American Development Bank
Francisca Giraldez, Inter-American Development Bank
Growing congestion is one of the main challenges faced by densely populated urban areas. It imposes significant economic costs for cities in terms of productivity loss. This paper provides evidence on the economic costs of congestion for three cities which are among the most congested in the world: Buenos Aires, Mexico City, and Sao Paulo. In 2019 the monetary costs of congestion were equivalent to approximately 1.6% of the GDP in Mexico City, 2.5% in Buenos Aires, and 4.0% in Sao Paulo. On average, each commuter lost 390 USD in Mexico City, 521 USD in Buenos Aires, and 1,028 USD in Sao Paulo. Results are disaggregated at hourly, monthly, and quarterly levels. It is expected that the results of this research will provide policymakers with a better understanding of the congestion dynamics, thus enhancing their ability to design more effective traffic management strategies.
How Disruptive is a Disruption? The Association between TNCs And Vehicle Ownership in Urbanizing Indonesia
Alyas Widita (firstname.lastname@example.org), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech)Show Abstract
Andyan Diwangkari, N/A
The advent of the transportation network companies (TNCs) in developing countries has been touted as one of the most visible examples of disruptive innovation. While their emergence is perceived as having substantial effects in reshaping present and future urban landscape, it remains unclear whether and to what extent the TNCs could reduce per capita vehicle ownership in rapidly urbanizing developing world. Using publicly available time-series data, this study exploits the staggered arrival of the TNCs to quantify their effects on vehicle ownership per capita at the city and district-level in West Java, Indonesia. Results from difference-in-differences models indicate that the arrival of the TNCs is associated with an approximately 1.4% reduction in vehicle ownership per capita. This suggests that the emergence of TNCs could have a tractable, albeit modest, impact in altering vehicle growth trajectory, even in rapidly urbanizing Indonesia where vehicle ownership has grown exponentially.
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Urban Freight – A Competition for Space in Densely Populated Cities
Paola Cruz Daravina, Pontificia Universidad JaverianaShow Abstract
Ivan Sanchez-Diaz, Chalmers tekniska hogskola
Juan Bocarejo Suescún, Universidad de Los Andes
This paper consists on an impact evaluation of policies oriented to improve public passenger transport by the implementation of BRT corridors (Bus Rapid Transit) in urban freight transport, logistic operations and freight flux. BRT System is the most implemented urban passenger transport system in Latin American cities the last decades. Along BRT corridors, strong flow and logistic facilities prohibitions have modified productive and commercial activities supply operations. Median and heavy trucks (over 3.5 tons) prohibition have been implemented, restricting supply traffic flow and loading and unloading operations in the city of Cali. This study was built on four variables analysis: emissions, mobility patterns, infrastructure and land use. Although data is dispersed and scarced, terrain observations and interviews permitted to obtain valuable conclusions. Results show how BRT implementation has modified freight mobility and land use patterns, translating some externalities to non BRT corridors and even interregional corridors. Paradoxically, BRT zones of influence attract more than 60% of urban freight destination.
How Affordable Is Transportation in Latin America and the Caribbean?
Maria Rivas, Inter-American Development BankShow Abstract
Tomás Serebrisky, Inter-American Development Bank
Ancor Suárez-Alemán, Inter-American Development Bank
Understanding and recognizing the different transportation conditions and mobility behavior of low-income groups is extremely important for developing and delivering sustainable transportation systems (Lucas et al. 2016). Herein we deepen the understanding of transportation affordability in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), with a focus on urban public transportation. The analysis of household expenditure on transportation by expenditure quintile shows that rich households in LAC spent a larger percentage of their expenditure on transportation (17.1 percent) than poorer households (7.7 percent) (Gandelman, Serebrisky, and Suárez-Alemán 2018). Also, as total expenditure increases, expenditure on private transportation increases. Measurement of transportation expenditure may not capture the transportation affordability problem of low-income groups, because fare evasion is higher in deprived areas and poor people may avoid some motorized trips because they are too expensive. We build a transportation affordability indicator and rank cities in accordance to their performance. The results show that the financial burden of a basket of transportation trips for the bottom income quintile exceeds 25 percent in half of the analyzed cities for the 60-trip basket. Transportation subsidies are the most common policy implemented in the region to increase the affordability of transportation, especially for low-income groups. However, their impact in the region has been mixed, showing the need of improving their implementation, particularly in terms of their distributional impacts.
Not My Usual Trip: Ride-hailing Characterization in Mexico City
Orlando Sabogal (email@example.com), University College LondonShow Abstract
Lynn Scholl, Inter-American Development Bank
Daniel Oviedo, University College London
Amado Crotte, Inter-American Development Bank
Felipe Bedoya-Maya, Inter-American Development Bank
With a few exceptions, research on ride-hailing has focused on North American cities with no consensus in sight around its impacts on public transit systems or their contribution to vehicle-kilometers traveled VKT and carbon emissions in different urban areas. Previous studies have identified the characteristics and preferences of ride-hailing adopters in a handful of cities. However, given their marked geographical focus, the relevance and applicability of such work to the practice of transport planning and regulation in cities in the Global South is minimal. In developing cities, the entrance of new transport services follows very different trajectories to those in North America and Europe, facing additional social, economic, and cultural challenges, and involving different strategies. Moreover, the determinants of mode choice might be mediated by social issues such as the perception of crime and the risk of sexual harassment in public transportation, which is often experienced by women in cities such as Mexico. This paper examines ride-hailing in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, unpacking the characteristics of its users, the ways they differ from users of other transport modes, and the implications for urban mobility. Building on the household travel survey from 2017, our analytical approach is based on a set of categorical models. Findings suggest the main unique factors influencing ride-hailing usage compared with users of other transport modes are gender, age, education, and being more mobile. The analysis shows that ride-hailing is used for occasional trips, and it is usually done for leisure and health trips as well as for night trips. The study also reflects on ride-hailing’s implications for the way women access the city.
The Potential Effect of the Ride-sourcing Disruption: A Stated Preference Analysis in Chengdu, China
Hongtai Yang, Southwest Jiaotong UniversityShow Abstract
Guocong ZHAI (firstname.lastname@example.org), Old Dominion University
Linchuan Yang, Southwest Jiaotong University
The rapid development of ride-sourcing services has reshaped the urban transportation system in recent years. Although many studies have explored the role of ride-sourcing services in and its impact on the urban transportation system, few focused on the potential effect of the ride-sourcing disruption, especially in the Asian context where the population density is much higher and public transit is used more frequently. We try to explore this topic by investigating what transportation modes ride-sourcing services substitute and how relative factors influence ride-sourcing users’ alternative mode choice (AMC) behavior if ride-sourcing services become unavailable. A stated preference survey was performed in Chengdu, China in November 2018, and 435 reported ride-sourcing trips made by 340 respondents were obtained. Survey data shows that public transit, taxi, active modes, and private vehicle account for 53.71%, 27.36%, 10.80%, and 7.13% of the alternative modes, respectively. It indicates that ride-sourcing services are substituting a large portion of transit trips. A mixed logit model is constructed to identify factors that influence AMC. Significant variables include travel cost, travel time, trip purpose, number of metro stations within the trip origin buffer, age, gender, number of household adults, number of household vehicles, and annual household income. This study offers insights into the effect of ride-sourcing on the transportation system.
A snapshot of the informal organization of public transport operators in the Caribbean: Tap-Tap services in Port-Au-Prince
Daniel Oviedo Hernandez (email@example.com), University College LondonShow Abstract
Yisseth Scorcia Tenjo, Independent Consultant
Pablo Guerrero, Inter-American Development Bank
Michael Delandsheer, Inter-American Development Bank
Raul Rodriguez-Molina, Inter-American Development Bank
Raphael Dewez, Inter-American Development Bank
Literature about transport in the Caribbean is scarce. Furthermore, the lack of studies exploring the complexities associated with informality in transport in cities of the Caribbean stands in contrast with the wealth of literature about cities in the neighboring Central and South America. Such a knowledge gap has led to limited evidence and methods tailored to the region for informing transport policy, public investments, and regulation. This paper seeks to partially address this gap by presenting a snapshot of the supply (and suppliers) of public transport in the Metropolitan Area of Port-Au-Prince (PAP) in Haiti, an urban context marked by acute poverty, inequality, and social vulnerability. The paper frames the analysis in three dimensions of informal organization of transport supply: functional, space-time, and social, building on a literature review of informal transport in the Global South. The study builds on a survey conducted in 2018 to 461 drivers of Tap-Tap, privately-owned, and operated modified pick-ups providing collective transport services to a large share of PAP’s public transport demand. We construct a profile of the modes of organization and operation of Tap-Tap services under the three dimensions in the framework. The paper finds low levels of representation and organization and a limited role of drivers’ associations, an overwhelmingly old fleet, and a masculine, unequal and exploitative system for operations. We also find that personal relationships play a significant role in the profitability of support functions of informal transport services. Such findings can inform policy and regulation in a highly dependent context from international development assistance, providing much-needed evidence for addressing pressing priorities in urban transport planning investment.
Evaluating the Role and Evolution of Factors Influencing Rapid Transit Planning in Ecuador: Theory, Practice and Policy Implications
Juan Arias (firstname.lastname@example.org), University of WaterlooShow Abstract
Chris Bachmann, University of Waterloo
In practice, the process of transportation planning is shaped by more than technical factors. This paper analyzes how different factors (demand, local conditions, financial, social and political) have influenced all of the rapid transit projects in Ecuador over the past three decades by evaluating their relative significance on each system component (alignment, size, and technology). This research uses a multiple-case methodology including in-depth interviews with the senior members of the technical teams, as well as a survey component based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for quantification of the relative significance of the factors. The comparative analysis of projects shows five key results: 1) Each project was unique and external factors introduced a varying degree of complexity into each planning process; 2) The systems’ alignments and sizes were mostly driven by demand and local conditions (rational planning process); 3) The main factor driving technology selection has evolved over time from system demand to political (political bargaining approach); 4) Negative economic conditions had a large influence on the factors of all project components; and 5) There is a lack of rational alternative evaluation and an absence of corresponding tools/guidelines in Ecuador. Nonetheless, several processes included practices that contributed to a more rational planning process: lifecycle cost analysis for the various technology alternatives, explicit decision-maker guidelines, transferring the demand risk to the private sector, and the use of MCDA. Implications for future planning efforts are discussed.
Fragmentary Implementation of TOD in a Developing Country Context: Case Study of Tehran’s Master Plan
Minoo Harirchian, University of TehranShow Abstract
Mahya Azadi, University of Tehran
Shahab Kermanshahi, University of Tehran
Mahdi Bashirinia, Tarbiat Modares University
Milad Ghasri (email@example.com), University of New South Wales
Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is a model of urban planning which advocates for sustainable development and building livable neighborhoods. Several measures including distance to transit, destination accessibility, design, density, and diversity are proposed to assess the compatibility of a plan with TOD principals; however, the solidity and comprehensiveness of a plan in simultaneously addressing these measures is not stressed enough. This paper examines the adherence of Tehran’s Master Plan to TOD principles with a focus on accuracy in measure and multidimensionality in assessment. A dynamic zoning system is introduced to capture a realistic reflection of walkable neighborhood for the residents. In the proposed zoning system, neighboring zones can overlap, as the walkable areas for the nearby residences may overlap. The results highlight the importance of a comprehensive approach towards TOD.
Incorporating Travel Time Reliability in Travel Mode Choice of Ride-Hailing Services in Developing Cities: Evidence from Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Gen Hayakawa, University of TokyoShow Abstract
Hironori Kato (firstname.lastname@example.org), University of Tokyo
Veng Phun, Institute of Technology of Cambodia
This study investigates travel mode choice behavior by incorporating travel time reliability under the penetration of ride-hailing services (RHSs) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. A local questionnaire survey was conducted with 1,104 citizens in December 2018, which questioned respondents about their current travel behavior, travel preference, and stated choice of travel modes. Binary logit models are estimated using the collected data for analyzing the modal choice. The estimation results reveal that local individuals are more likely to choose RHSs than public bus services; notably, those older than the age of 22 with higher incomes showed a strong preference for RHSs over buses. The results also showed that travel time and travel cost, in addition to age, income, and car ownership, have significant effects, while travel time reliability has a significant negative effect on the utility level. The average value of travel time is estimated at 4.1 USD per hour, and the average value of travel time reliability is 0.32 USD per 10% increase in the probability of being delayed by ten minutes. This implies that travel time reliability is an important service attribute even in Asian developing countries such as Cambodia, in addition to travel time and travel cost. The findings suggest that urban transportation planning in developing cities where RHSs have become available should highlight the improvement in the travel time reliability of public transit.
Online Shopping Versus In-store Shopping Trips: Structural Equation Models of Shopping Behaviors, Built Environment, Attitudes, Lifestyle, and Internet Experience
Roya Etminani-Ghasrodashti (email@example.com), University of Texas, ArlingtonShow Abstract
This study investigates the emergence of online shopping behavior among Iranian people, who have experienced a recent and transformative boom in internet access and usage. To explore shopping behaviors among this population, online and in-store shopping frequencies were examined through a comprehensive survey which collected data from individuals in 22 neighborhoods of Metropolitan Shiraz. The predictive factors of online and in-store shopping include internet experience, in-store shopping attributes, attitudes, lifestyle, and built-environment measures. The rate and proportion of online shopping among the study population is remarkable despite the barriers to using popular online applications in Iran. Employing Structural Equation Models, this study accounts for both direct and indirect effects of key variables on both online and in-store shopping frequencies. Overall, our results reveal that the most influential determinants of whether a consumer shopped online versus in-person included the built environment, store-specific shopping attributes, and consumers’ lifestyles and general attitudes. Other notable predictors of online shopping frequency in the study are the frequency of pre-purchase online searching as well as the significant proportion of consumers using the automobile as their primary mode of transport for shopping trips. Results suggest that in-store shopping has a complementary, rather than a purely adversarial, relationship with online shopping frequency. In-store shopping and decision-making of consumers plays a complementary and supportive role to their online shopping behavior, and in return, online shopping motivates individuals to do more in-store shopping. Thus, rapid advances in ICT are not able to reduce shopping-related travel frequencies in Iran.
Reimagining China’s transportation funding investments in Africa in lieu of COVID-19
Clovia Hamilton, SUNY KoreaShow Abstract
Africa has not invested enough in its healthcare system and China has been investing in and financing much of Africa’s transportation system. Many African countries’ fragile health and transportation systems are further weakened by the COVID-19 pandemic. This literature review confirms the interdependence of the key functional areas of comprehensive development planning and the importance of building and maintaining a sound transportation infrastructure. With respect to its partnership with China, the African nation needs to enter into trade agreements from a more comprehensive lens. The trade agreements and financing deals need to take into consideration all of the functional areas of comprehensive development planning. It is all the more apparent given the COVID-19 pandemic that these trade deals need to include simultaneous heavy investments in healthcare, education, housing, public utilities (water and electricity), and economic development through improved supply chain management and the use of advanced digital technology. In addition to the deal structures for China’s investments in China’s transportation infrastructure, there are also opportunities to reimagine the African nations’ internal transportation spending. For example, there are models in the United States for using transportation funds to invest in health clinics in transit stations. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought this issue to bear and it is a problem that can be rectified with ‘comprehensive’ development planning that takes into account all of the key functional areas of planning: healthcare, environmental protection, safety, education, housing, economic development and transportation. Five recommendations follow the literature review and discussion.
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