Effects of Flexible Notice-To-Proceed Provisions on the Performance of Transportation Infrastructure Projects
Meng Wai Yaw, Keville EnterprisesShow Abstract
Hyungseok Jeong (firstname.lastname@example.org), Texas A&M University
Kunhee Choi, Texas A&M University, College Station
When alternative contracting techniques are considered, one innovative approach for assuring the performance of a transportation infrastructure project is offering contractors flexibility regarding when they start the project. Although such flexible notice-to-proceed (NTP) provisions are becoming more common, quantitative studies examining its impact on project performance are nonexistent. This study investigates the likely effects of NTP provisions on competitive bidding, bid prices, and contract time. A dataset gathered from the North Carolina Department of Transportation was carefully stratified by type and size of project to allow for unbiased analysis. The results from the hypothesis testing revealed that projects with flexible NTP provisions were more competitive in terms of bidding. The results also indicated a positive correlation between the length of flexible time window and award growth. This study is the first of its kind and will help state transportation agencies make better-informed decisions by providing a point of reference when adopting NTP provisions for alternative contracting projects.
Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in Highway Construction Progress Monitoring
Reihaneh Samsami, Michigan Technological UniversityShow Abstract
Amlan Mukherjee (email@example.com), Michigan Technological University
The transportation Infrastructure Management sector lacks automated procedures that can help it find and resolve the performance deviations. The objective of this research is to illustrate the mapping of UAV collected photogrammetric data to Building Information Modeling (BIM) parameters, and their application for automated construction progress monitoring and the generation of as-built 3D models. The goal is to support project managers to estimate project progress during highway construction. As a part of ongoing work, this paper takes into account 4D (3D+Time) data that is acquired from 3D surface digital elevation models, point clouds, LiDAR data, and orthographic photos. It maps these 4D data onto BIM parameters to create as-built models of the project at different intervals. A comparison between as-planned and as-built models using Earned Value Management (EVM) method is employed to develop metrics that can be used for indicating cost and schedule deviations during construction. The mapping methodology introduced in this paper, is illustrated using an ongoing highway construction project case study. The main contribution of this paper is the organization, processing and integration of UAV data with BIM data structures and project management workflows. The research outcomes will assist project managers in an easy and quick identification of potential performance problems, and support the project management decision-making process.
AN ANALYSIS OF CONSTRUCTABILITY PRACTICES IN STATE DEPARTMENTS OF TRANSPORTATION UNDER ORGANIZATIONAL CONSTRAINTS
Ghada Gad (firstname.lastname@example.org), California State Polytechnic University, PomonaShow Abstract
Edward Minchin, University of Florida
Designers typically do not base critical design decisions on construction requirements and constraints, and soon realize that their designs could be difficult to build and expensive. Thus, construction expertise needs to be incorporated in the design process through applying constructability concepts at early project stages. With the underlying concept of a construction-driven design, there are many approaches used by transportation agencies in conducting constructability reviews (CRs), but the key is to develop an approach that is consistent and scalable to different ranges of environmental constraints and project delivery methods, while accounting for organizational structure. The objective of this paper is thus, to investigate and recommend effective practices in CRs that could be used by Departments of Transportation (DOTs), given their organizational constraints. To achieve this objective, the methodology was divided into two major steps starting with a comprehensive literature review, followed by two case studies of DOTs employing two different constructability programs that align with their policies and constraints: California Department of Transportation and Utah Department of Transportation. Results of the case studies highlight the common themes in their CRs (early involvement of the DOT construction team), while the organizational constraint also result in significant differences (CR formality level, and consultants and contractors’ involvement). This study thus, highlights that there is a no one-size-fits-all constructability approach and provides evidence and recommendations through two different but successful CR processes, on the importance of developing a CR process that aligns with organizational constraints.
Construction Inspection Made Easier: Automatic Generation of Customized Inspection Checklists for Construction Activities
Xin Xu, Purdue UniversityShow Abstract
JungHo Jeon, Purdue University
Yuxi Zhang, Purdue University
Liu Yang, Purdue University
Hubo Cai, Purdue University
Construction inspection is critical to ensuring the quality and long-term performance of infrastructure. The current practice, which consists of inspectors manually gathering and personally interpreting the construction requirements from standard specifications, is subjective, error-prone, and time-consuming. This paper presents an intelligent database approach to automatically generating customized checklists of construction requirements at the pay item level. The proposed approach consists of three components: (1) identification of the functional requirements by consulting with the end users, (2) development of a construction inspection knowledge model via ontology to guide the database design, and (3) devising mechanisms to automate the generation of customized construction checklists for the work under inspection with all the necessary details regarding what, when, and how to check as well as the risks and actions when noncompliance is encountered. Specifically, the following functions now can be performed within the new system: (1) automatic generation of a customized checklist at the pay item level; (2) access to a checklist display that aligns with the repetitive/cyclical nature of construction workflows; (3) navigation between cross-referenced check items; (4) subgroupings based on responsibility, risk level, and inspection frequency; and (5) real-time links to training materials such as photos, videos, textual documents, and websites. This newly developed tool is currently being implemented and is expected to greatly reduce the workload for inspectors and enhance the effectiveness of the construction inspection process.
Complex Networks Perspectives towards Accelerated Bridge Construction
MD ASHRAF AHMED, Florida International UniversityShow Abstract
Arif Mohaimin Sadri, Florida International University
Armin Mehrabi, Florida International University
Atorod Azizinamini, Florida International University
Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) advances the life cycle cost, reduces construction time, results in higher quality of elements and can create impacts on the road network carrying regular traffic. The problem may get escalated during major natural extreme events (hurricane, wildfire). As such, network positions or credentials of bridges based on their topography or connectivity need to be assessed to prioritize or stage ABC activities. There have been limited investigations from different state agencies to monitor the effects on traffic due to ABC related activities and to identify more efficient strategies to pursue such activities while reducing overall system-wide impact. This study emphasized on a coordinated and extensive network experiments at different geographic scales to apply complex network science principles to the study of bridge networks and ABC related activities. GIS modeling is used along with FDOT bridge and road network data to run network experiments and prioritize certain bridges based on their network credentials. In particular, the study established a systematic approach to rank the topological credentials of bridges based on the connectivity of road networks. The research provides new insights into ABC activities based on the topography of vulnerable bridges and monitoring system-wide impacts during crisis such as emergency evacuations during major hurricanes. The study guides towards developing a credible tool that would benefit states, municipalities and other transportation authorities to prioritize risk based maintenance strategies and implement different ABC methods ensuring more efficient cost, schedule and quality.
Low Powered Wide-Area Network Setup for Asset Tracking of Non-Powered Temporary Construction Equipment
Thomas Brennan, College of New JerseyShow Abstract
Joseph Jesson, RFSigint Group Consulting
Anthony Deese, College of New Jersey
Andrew Bechtel, College of New Jersey
Efrain Rodriguez, Tenna LLC
As communication and power systems continue to improve, Internet of Things (IoT) technologies are being implemented into smart cities and smart infrastructure designs. IoT sensor devices allow a small amount of data to be communicated in a power-efficient manner to a central server to report location, movement, temperature, and a number of other different environmental attributes. With improvements to device connectivity and the availability of long-lasting batteries, non-powered temporary construction equipment can now be cost effectively tracked and inventoried. For this study, a Long Range (LoRa) sensor is connected through a Low Powered Wide-Area Network (LPWAN) IoT network to test the feasibility of tracking temporary construction equipment, specifically Jersey barriers. The signal strength relative to distance is analyzed along with a proposed sensor network deployment topology implementing field hardened sensor housing recommendations. The results show that a commercially available LoRa sensor, on an LPWAN can track temporary construction equipment up to 4,300 feet along a relatively straight arterial corridor. From the study, it was determined that it is feasible to deploy a LoRa network to track non-powered temporary construction equipment. The study also demonstrated that a cost-effective Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) housing could be used that remained intact after 300 cycles of freeze and thaw.
Total road closure or partial closure – Insights for road project scheduling
Sania E. Seilabi (email@example.com), Purdue UniversityShow Abstract
Amir Davatgari, Purdue University
Mohammad Miralinaghi, Purdue University
Samuel Labi, Purdue University
Growth in metropolitan areas and aging infrastructure require major road construction (rehabilitation and lane addition) projects. However, during the construction work, there is disruption in daily traffic and vehicular emissions. The road agency typically has different options for implementing the road projects that can impact road capacity, project duration and cost during the project implementation. Nonetheless, it remains an open question to whether fully close the roads under and expedite the project implementation or partially close the roads and allow travelers to use it at reduced capacity during the project implementation. This study proposes a bi-level program where in the upper level, road agency aims to optimally schedule the road construction work zones with considering road capacity and project duration relationship. The goal of the agency is to minimize the vehicular emissions and road construction costs during the construction horizon. In the lower level, two types of travelers’ route choice behavior are captured: (i) rational travelers who minimize their travel time considering construction work zones and (ii) path loyal travelers who do not change their routes compared to preconstruction horizon. The bi-level model is a mixed-integer nonlinear program and solved using particle swarm optimization technique. The results indicate that if the agency places a higher weight on the construction cost dollar compared to the travel delay dollar, this leads to the more construction projects under the full road closure scenario which generates higher emissions costs.
Constructability Reviews Utilization across Alternative Project Delivery Methods
Adi Smadi, University of KansasShow Abstract
Daniel Tran, University of Kansas
Edward Minchin, University of Florida
State Transportation Agencies (STAs) recognized that to enhance the quality of construction documents, a review process must be incorporated into the project planning, design and procurement to evaluate projects for constructability. The benefits promised by constructability reviews (CRs) encouraged STAs to adopt it as part of their operations. STAs have recognized that to overcome construction knowledge shortages under the traditional design-bid-build (DBB) delivery method, more emphasis must be placed towards alternative project delivery methods (APDMs). As such, design-build (DB) and construction manager/general contractor (CM/GC) are among the APDMs most utilized by STAs to deliver transportation projects. In spite that extensive research has investigated project performance under APDMs, similar research with respect to CRs implementation is remarkably absent. This study examines the effective CR utilization and staffing practices adopted by STAs across DBB, DB and CM/GC projects. The results of this study are drawn utilizing data collected through a national survey questionnaire and case studies with selected STAs. The study found that, for projects of similar characteristics, CRs are initiated and implemented in proportionally similar phases across DBB, DB and CM/GC projects. Some STAs adopt a combined CR approach, where all reviewers review the plans together, while others adopt a partitioned CR approach. Investigations of staffing needs revealed that while the agency holds the executive role in implementation of CRs on DBB projects, their role shift on APDMs to become more administrative. The results of this study are anticipated to help STAs in their efforts to formalize CRPs across APDMs.
Ultra-Wideband (UWB)-Based System for Positioning at Tunnelling Construction Site
Sicong Zhu, Beijing Jiaotong UniversityShow Abstract
Xiangdi Li, Beijing Jiaotong University
Yanchi Li, Beijing Jiaotong University
Dongxiao Yu, Beijing Zhongjiao Ruida Technology Co. Ltd.
Lei Yu, Texas Southern University
Qing Lan, Hebei University
Real-time information on the location of builders and vehicles is essential for evacuation and rescue in the event of an emergency. For accurate and reliable positioning of builders and vehicles in the construction sites of tunnels and other transportation facilities, a prototype positioning system, based on ultra-wideband (UWB) distance measurement, is presented in this paper. The system is developed based on an open-source microcontroller and is designed to deliver positioning information in a longitudinal direction. To mitigate positioning errors, the research applies error theory and adjusts the raw measurements. The positioning results are filtered and visualized with Processing software. The experimental results collected at a tunnel site indicate that the system delivers promising positioning results and a practical safety solution for tunnelling sites.
Supply Chain Management for the Ready-mixed Concrete with the Use of Blockchain
Wen Wang, Shanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShow Abstract
Hao Hu, Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Toong Khuan Chan, University of Melbourne
Shang Gaol, University of Melbourne
Zhe Hu, Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Quality management and control of the ready-mixed concrete (RMC) is an unsolved challenge in the RMC supply chain. To resolve this challenge, this study proposes a blockchain-based information management framework for RMC, which explores the application of blockchain in the domain of RMC supply chain to better control quality. The proposed model and its information interaction flow are illustrated in detail. Moreover, a prototype for the proposed model is developed to evaluate the performance and feasibility of the model. Finally, the limitations of this study and further work are discussed. The results indicate that the proposed model can improve the information management of RMC from three aspects: (1) transparency; (2) traceability; and (3) information sharing.
Assessing Owner Expectations in Making the Project Delivery Method Selection Decision
Douglas Gransberg, Gransberg & Associates, Inc.Show Abstract
Daniel D'Angelo, Applied Research Associates Inc
The project delivery method (PDM) selection decision in transportation projects fundamentally involves the agency comparing those PDMs that it is authorized to use against projects risks and identifying the method that is perceived to maximize potential project success. While a number of academic studies have been conducted that proposed data-driven quantitative methodologies for optimizing the decision, a recent study funded by the Federal Highway Administration found that state departments of transportation (DOT) rely on a qualitative approach based on the perceived risks inherent with each PDM under consideration. This paper reports the results of case study interviews from eleven DOTs, which involved the rating of 19 project outcomes and the value of 15 preconstruction services. The analysis was conducted using two different approaches: classic Likert scale ratings and factorial pairwise comparison. The paper finds that the outcome reached by each method was different. The Likert scale rating indicated that design-build (DB) was the preferred PDM; whereas, the pairwise comparison found construction manager/general contractor (CMGC) to be the preferred method. The paper infers that the difference relates to the need for the agency to surrender control of the design details in DB. When a head-to-head comparison is made on the 34 variables CMGC is perceived to provide enhanced scope certainty as well as cost and schedule certainty when the DOT controls the design.
Dynamic Performance Management of Non-cost Objectives in Alliance Projects
Eric Scheepbouwer, University of CanterburyShow Abstract
Jacobus Van der Walt, University of Canterbury
Disaster reconstruction projects are delivered in complex and uncertain environments, but owners still expect that both cost and non-cost objectives will be achieved. Alliancing is well suited to complex projects with undefined scopes. The alliance project or program delivery method uses key performance indicators to manage non-cost project objectives. Using key performance indicators is one way of translating the non-cost objectives of owners into performance measures that drive performance towards success in these objectives. This paper uses the SCIRT alliance as a case study to investigate how non-cost objectives can be effectively managed in the context of a disaster reconstruction program. The findings in this paper suggest that a dynamic non-cost performance management framework enables alliance participants to drive performance, and gain control over program uncertainty as more contextual knowledge is obtained and the alliance culture changes throughout the program lifecycle.
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