This is a poster session that includes research results on a wide variety of transportation planning, policy, and processes. Participants from rural, small urban, and large metropolitan areas will all find interesting poster presentations on applicable topics.
This poster session features topics ranging from automated vehicle benefits in rural areas to COVID-19 impacts on transportation in urban areas. Specific topics include safety, public transportation, congestion, sustainability, and evolving technologies. Presenters include a variety of academicians and practitioners who will provide the latest research and state-of-the-practice.
An Investigation of the Preconstruction Project Development Process of State Transportation Agencies
Tanin Haidary, Clemson UniversityShow Abstract
Dennis Bausman, Clemson University
Mashrur Chowdhury, Clemson University
Ajay Jadhav, Clemson University
State Transportation Agencies (STA) are under increasing pressure to deliver projects timely, cost-effectively, and improve the performance of their programs and projects to meet the needs of their constituents. The primary objectives for this study were to gain insight concerning the state DOT preconstruction Project Development Process (PDP) and the use of professional services consultants. Input was solicited from the fifty state DOTs in the U.S. using the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Research Advisory Committee (RAC) membership listing. An online survey containing forty-eight questions investigated the topics of scheduling, project planning and scope development, performance evaluation, development activities and timeframes, and the utilization and management of professional service consultants. Responses were received from 36 state Departments of Transportation (DOT) (72% response rate). The findings include that the duration of the (PDP) varies significantly amongst states. The use of consultants is widespread and increasing. Prequalification and use of on-call/IDIQ/continuing consultants for project design reduces procurement duration. Project scoping with cross-functional teams is widespread, state DOTs that develop a formal scoping document have fewer scope revisions, and agency preconstruction department organization and structure have an impact on the duration of the PDP.
Effect of Street Network Connectivity on Traffic Congestion and Traffic Safety
Dong-ah Choi (email@example.com), University of UtahShow Abstract
Reid Ewing, University of Utah
Over the last two decades, street network connectivity has gained substantial attention in urban planning circles as a critical environmental aspect to better achieve many community goals. Despite advocacy for interconnected street networks, the literature on the effects of street connectivity on transportation outcomes is still intuitive and anecdotal. In this study, we examine the effect of street connectivity measures on congestion levels and crash rates in neighborhoods across Utah’s Wasatch Front. In this quasi-experimental study, we employ propensity score matching to select pairwise neighborhood samples, in which the matched two neighborhoods have similar social and environmental characteristics but differ greatly in street connectivity. To estimate street network connectivity, we use principal component analysis to develop a composite index incorporating multiple aspects of street connectivity. Congestion levels are computed as the Travel Time Index (TTI) on arterials and collectors, and crash rates are calculated at three different severity levels— total, injury, and fatal . Finally, we use t-tests to determine whether significant differences exist between high- and low-connectivity neighborhoods. Our results show that more connected neighborhoods have significantly lower congestion levels, but they do not have measurably lower (or higher) crash rates presumably due to the prevalence of four-way intersections. This study can help guide data-driven decision making on street connectivity standards for many of the growing urban areas across the country and globe.
Planning an Organizationally Resilient Connected and Autonomous Vehicles Future - How the State of Kansas Made CAVs a Focus for Every State Agency
Michael DeMent, HNTB CorporationShow Abstract
Mike Floberg, Kansas Department of Transportation
Kip Strauss, HNTB Corporation
In 2018, the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) launched a two-year initiative known as the Kansas Connected and Autonomous Vehicle (CAV) Vision Plan (Plan). It aimed to develop a statewide CAV vision, mission and goals; build awareness of potential Kansas CAV benefits; and engage state agencies and private-sector parties through a statewide Task Force in developing agency-specific action plans (blueprints) for advancing CAV deployments. This approach was developed to engage more perspectives earlier than just those of state and federal DOTs in leveraging CAV benefits and mitigating impacts. It was intended to create planning and implementation resilience by having multiple, parallel efforts that advance even if a single agency experiences funding or other challenges (such as COVID-19). The goal was to ensure that Kansas maintains steady momentum with coordinated CAV-related planning, development and implementation efforts memorialized for each state agency producing and acting on its own individual blueprint for CAV policy, deployment, and operational considerations. These blueprints provided each agency a high-level plan for how it can incorporate connected and autonomous vehicles into their organizational business planning, staffing and activities. Blueprints were developed through a combination of surveys, interviews and four facilitated, interactive work sessions with Task Force members. Out of this, each state agency developed its own blueprint customized to focus staff and resources on aspects of CAV planning and deployment that best matched its mission and customer needs. These then could be integrated into a statewide CAV Vision and framework to facilitate statewide autonomous and connected vehicle deployment.
Measuring Congestion and Reliability Impacts of Safety Projects
Simona Babiceanu, Virginia Department of TransportationShow Abstract
Sanhita Lahiri, Virginia Department of Transportation
Mena Lockwood, Virginia Department of Transportation
This study uses a suite of performance measures that was developed by taking into consideration various aspects of congestion and reliability, to assess impacts of safety projects on congestion. Safety projects are necessary to help move Virginia's roadways towards safer operation, but these projects can contribute to congestion and unreliability during execution, and can impact operations after execution. However safety projects are assessed primarily for safety improvements, and not for congestion. Using the suite of measures, this study set out to quantify and compare the congestion and reliability impacts of safety projects on roadways for the periods before, during, and after project execution. The paper presents the performance measures, defines thresholds for congestion and reliability, looks at the sensitivity of the measures based on operating conditions, and demonstrates the measures using a set of Virginia safety projects. The study found that, overall the safety projects examined tended to have a positive impact on congestion and reliability after completion, and the congestion variability measures were sensitive to the threshold of reliability. The study concludes with practical recommendations for primary measures that may be used to measure overall impacts of safety projects: percent VMT (Vehicle Miles Traveled) Reliable with a customized threshold for Virginia, Percent VMT Delayed, and Time to Travel 10 miles. However caution should be used when applying the results directly to other situations, due to the limited number of projects used in the study. Keywords: Performance Measures, Congestion, Reliability, Safety Project
Mitigating Increased Driving after the COVID-19 Pandemic: an Analysis on Mode Share, Travel Demand, and Public Transport Capacity.
Francesca Ciuffini, Rete Ferroviaria ItalianaShow Abstract
Simone Tengattini (firstname.lastname@example.org), Rete Ferroviaria Italiana
Alexander Bigazzi, University of British Columbia
Reduced transit capacity to accommodate social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic was a sudden constraint that, along with large reductions in total travel volume and shifts in activity patterns, contributed to abrupt changes in transportation mode shares across cities worldwide. There are major concerns that as the total travel demand rises back toward pre-pandemic levels, the overall transport system capacity with transit constraints is insufficient for the increasing demand. This paper uses city-level scenario analysis to examine potential post-COVID-19 car usage increases and feasibility of alternative shifts to active transportation, based on pre-pandemic mode shares and varying reductions of transit capacity. An application of the analysis is presented for a sample of cities in Europe and North America. Mitigating an increase in driving requires a substantial increase in active transportation mode share, particularly in cities with high pre-COVID-19 transit ridership; but such a shift may be possible based on the high percentage of short-distance motorized trips. The results highlight the importance of making active transportation attractive with comprehensive protected infrastructure, reinforce the value of multi-modal transportation systems, and advance the idea of compact, mixed-use development as a strategy for urban resilience. This paper provides a strategic planning tool for policy makers facing challenging transportation system decisions in the COVID-19 pandemic aftermath.
Does Density Aggravate the COVID-19 Pandemic? Early Findings and Lessons for Planners
Shima Hamidi (email@example.com), Johns Hopkins UniversityShow Abstract
Sadegh Sabouri, University of Utah
Reid Ewing, University of Utah
The impact of density on emerging highly contagious infectious diseases has rarely been studied. In theory, dense areas lead to more face-to-face interaction among residents, which makes them potential hotspots for the rapid spread of pandemics. On the other hand, dense areas may have better access to health care facilities and greater implementation of social distancing policies and practices. The current COVID-19 pandemic is a perfect case study to investigate these relationships. This study employs structural equation modeling to account for both direct and indirect impacts of density on the COVID-19 infection and mortality rates for 913 U.S metropolitan counties, controlling for key confounding factors. We found metropolitan population to be one of the most significant predictors of infection rates, with larger metropolitan areas having higher infection and higher mortality rates. We also found that after controlling for metropolitan population, county density is not significantly related to the infection rate possibly due to more adherence to social distancing guidelines. However, counties with higher densities have significantly lower virus-related mortality rates than do counties with lower densities, possibly due to superior health care systems. These findings suggest that connectivity matters more than density in the spread of COVID-19 pandemic. Large metropolitan areas with a higher number of counties tightly linked together through economic, social, and commuting relationships are the most vulnerable to the pandemic outbreaks. They are more likely to exchange tourists and business people within themselves and with other parts, thus increasing the risk of cross border infections.
Mobility 2050: A novel pass toward mandate design for the future of sustainable transport
Amalia Polydoropoulou (firstname.lastname@example.org), University of the AegeanShow Abstract
Floridea Di Ciommo, Cambiamo | changingMObility S.c.m.
Payal Arora, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
Yoram Shiftan, Technion Israel Institute of Technology
Susan Hoadley, POLIS - Promotion of Operational Links with Integrated Services
Ioannis Tsouros, University of the Aegean
Athena Tsirimpa, University of the Aegean
Ioanna Pagoni, University of the Aegean
Gianni Rondinella, Cambiamo | changingMObility S.c.m.
In 2020, transportation of passengers and freight is still responsible for 25% percentage of the CO2 emissions in Europe and 23% in the world, as well as the biggest cause of air pollution in cities. Current transport supply, demand and policy directions are not sufficient to create the desired mandate for the future of transportation in the face of existential threats. This paper presents an alternative methodology for framing a new narrative for the future of transport, recognizing that consistent behavioral changes in mobility cannot be addressed solely by technological solutions, but cultural mandates need to be considered and reformed as well. The adopted methodology consists of a transition design where different actors are involved in a process of empathizing with contemporary transport system users’ needs and aspirations. It proposes an innovative and engaging design-thinking approach that navigates through potential solutions, ideates and co-creates future-oriented scenarios based on three analysis pillars: planetary, social and personal. At the personal level to produce rewards and personal satisfaction from sustainable travel options; at the societal level to change the sociocultural environment through neuron mirrors; and at the planetary level to change policy-making diagnosis and deployment, allowing policy-makers to engage and incubate ideas, visions and strategies towards the future of transportation. This unique methodological deployment enables a forward-looking vision to develop a new transport paradigm for the Mobility of 2050.
Understanding the Temporal, Regional, Demographic and Policy Factors Influencing Counties’ Daily Traffic Volume Reductions in Response to COVID-19
Mitchell Fisher, Auburn UniversityShow Abstract
Jeffrey LaMondia, Auburn University
This research aims to identify temporal, regional, demographic, and policy factors that influenced travel reduction within the contiguous United States during the early period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Particularly, this research combines US Census data, infection rates, and state-level mandates to determine their effects on daily, county-level Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) estimations from March 1st, 2020, to April 21st, 2020. Specifically, this work generates metrics of VMT per capita, daily change in VMT, and VMT immediate reaction rates for every county in the country and develops regression models to determine how these factors influence VMT rates over time. Results showed state-mandated orders deployed in a pattern relative to their expected economic impact. Model results showed infection rates may have had a greater influence on forcing state policy adoption, ensuring VMT drops, rather than the number of cases directly influencing individual travel to a significant degree. Additionally, counties with higher populations or labeled as urban counties saw a greater reduction in VMT across all three models compared to lower population and rural counties. Planners and policy makers in the future can utilize the results of this research to make better informed responses as well as know the expected results of their actions.
The Role Of Accessibility To Public Transport On Residential Location Choice Of Temporary Residents: The Case Of Porto And Copenhagen
Mayara Monteiro (email@example.com), Danmarks Tekniske UniversitetShow Abstract
Mikkel Thorhauge, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet
João de Abreu e Silva, Instituto Superior Técnico Universidade de Lisboa
Jorge Sousa, Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Engenharia
Increased globalization has led to more opportunities for temporary relocations to develop work and study activities abroad and, consequently, to an increase in the number of highly skilled temporary residents. This paper seeks to understand what impacts the residential location choice of highly skilled temporary residents. The objective of this paper is fourfold: (i) to measure to what extent land use attributes affect the residential location; (ii) understand the trade-offs between these attributes on the residential location choice; (iii) measure the willingness-to-pay for the attributes analyzed; (iv) compare the results of two European cities that have distinct infrastructure levels for supporting soft modes use. Stated preference data was collected through a tailor-made online questionnaire, and a mixed logit model was estimated. Overall, respondents living in the Copenhagen area have higher preferences associated with living closer to the university, are more heterogeneous on their preferences regarding accessibility to rail, and prefer to be closer to commerce and places of leisure than those living in Porto. The findings evidence that when the place of work or study is not close to a rail station, the importance of accessibility to rail stations from the residential location seems to decrease somewhat for the decision on where to live. Additionally, improving the accessibility of universities through public transport has the potential for reducing the burden of housing stock close to universities, and providing information on travel options at the moment they are deciding on where to live may significantly decrease the chances of residential dissonance. Keywords: Temporary residents, International relocation, Residential location choice, Willingness-to-pay
Consideration of Automated Vehicle Benefits and Research Needs for Rural America
Jonathan Dowds, University of VermontShow Abstract
Gregory Rowangould, University of Vermont
Lisa Aultman-Hall, University of Waterloo
Safety, mobility, accessibility challenges and dependence on personal vehicles have long plagued rural transportation systems. Benefits in these areas are widely touted by autonomous vehicles (AV) advocates. Seven mechanisms for AV-induced VMT increases are reviewed here and five of these mechanisms are expected to have a disproportionately larger impact on rural VMT. There is almost uniform expectation that AV-related VMT increases must be managed through car-sharing and ride-sharing systems. The landscape of origins and destinations and the total population of rural areas preclude reasonable sharing and there is a risk of unintended consequences from pro-sharing policies that will limit rural AV adoption or increase unit costs leading to a failure to attain the safety and mobility benefits. Designing policies for optimal AV deployment in rural areas requires modeling. This paper outlines five methods that have been used to study VMT change: travel demand equalization; travel demand elasticity; travel demand models; and stated and revealed preference survey. The first three suffer from lack of rural specific data. Revealed preference surveys are very expensive but may be worthwhile given the scope of the potential benefits to a large portion of the country and nearly 20% of its residents. Alternatively, the more cost-effective, albeit biased, stated preference survey might fill the rural AV data gap. Rural data are essential to inform policy design because rural areas will experience different AV benefits and impacts than are seen in urban areas.
A Review of the Electric Personal Assistive Mobility Device (EPAMD) Policies
Samia Akter, South Carolina State UniversityShow Abstract
Judith Mwakalonge, South Carolina State University
Saidi Siuhi, South Carolina State University
Md Mahmud Hasan Mamun, Florida International University
Gurcan Comert, Benedict College
Electric Personal Assistive Mobility Device (EPAMD) are defined as power-assisted devices for mobility. According to the National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO), approximately 38.5 million trips were made in electric scooters in 2018 in the USA. However, the appropriate policy related to the use of EPAMD is not yet thoroughly acknowledged. This study did review the existing policy concerning the use of EPAMDs and the necessary policy needed for using EPAMD in the roadway or sidewalk. It includes a review of several rules, regulations, and legislative issues from diverse sources like the government website, journal articles regarding the operation of EPAMDs on roadways or walkways. The outcomes of this review include identification of the gap(s) in the current policy and recommended changes to integrate and safely operate EPAMDs in the transportation system. This research will help the transportation agencies and policymakers to implement the necessary rules and legislation for using EPAMDs.
Definitions, Types and Criteria of Centers in Planning Practice: A Review of 126 Regional Transportation Plans in the U.S.
Fatemeh kiani, University of UtahShow Abstract
Sadegh Sabouri, University of Utah
Dong-ah choi, Utah Valley University
Keunhyun Park, Utah State University
As the antidote to sprawling suburbs, polycentric development with compact centers could encourage all the things sprawl discourages such as public health, environmental sustainability, and social cohesion. While polycentricity has gained huge attention in Europe, most of the U.S. regions have just started to study this planning approach. This paper presents a comprehensive review of 126 regional transportation plans in the U.S. to assess how polycentric development has been conceptualized and operationalized in the plans. Generally, the center is the densest part of an area characterized by compact, mixed-use development, multiple transit options, and employment opportunities. Our review shows that the term “center” is in connection with various geographic levels—region, city, sub-region, town, community, and village. Alternatively, it is used to signify clusters of certain activities or functions, such as an employment center which are not necessarily dense or mixed-use. Among the surveyed plans, only 25 of the 126 plans included any type of quantitative indicator, and some of these indicators are overly broad. The quantitative criteria can be classified into four main factors–employment density, residential density, total population or employment, area size, and building design (floor area ratio). The findings of this paper provide useful insights for practitioners, planners, and decision-makers in the U.S. to have a better understanding of polycentricity in the U.S. context. Besides, it guides the regions that do not have any quantitative criteria (or only have some overly broad indicators) to design and develop their hierarchy of centers.
Quantifying the Adoption of Highly Automated Technologies by Rural Population: A Case Study of Tennessee
Ishant Sharma (firstname.lastname@example.org), University of MemphisShow Abstract
Sabya Mishra, University of Memphis
Mihalis Golias, University of Memphis
Rural roads play a vital role in the economy in terms of moving goods and people to their respective destinations. Also, despite 19% population living in rural areas, about 45% of highway crash fatalities occur on rural roads with the fatality rate twice as urban roads. Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) have the potential to eliminate all human error-related road crashes. While literature is rich in CAV perception and adoption in urban settings, similar findings of rural context are limited to non-existent. In this paper, we make an effort to quantify the future adoption of CAVs in rural areas based on the concept of word of mouth and social interaction. Using a statewide survey in the state of Tennessee and only considering the rural population, we utilized agent-based simulation to model and forecast the market share of CAVs. We then generated the synthetic population and social network based on the survey dataset and quantified the share of CAVs under different policy scenarios. We also compared the adoption levels in rural areas with previous adoption studies in urban or mixed areas. Results indicated a slow adoption rate in the rural areas as compared to urban areas. The market share of CAVs in the rural area varied from 15% to 90%, with an increase in their annual price reduction from 5% to 20%. The results of this study will provide policymakers, practitioners, and automakers key insights to frame policies and implementing plans related to the penetration of CAVs in rural areas.
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