Fuzzy and Monte Carlo Simulation Approach to Assess Transportation Vehicles
Lambros Mitropoulos, Centre for Research and Technology (CERTH) - Hellenic Institute of Transport (HIT)Show Abstract
Panos Prevedouros, University of Hawaii
Assessment of transportation vehicle types and
technologies for supporting decision making and promoting sustainable
transportation planning is a challenging process due to substantial sources of
variability and uncertainty. The differences among vehicle technologies, the
large number of variables in the sustainability assessment of transportation
systems, and the subjective judgment of decision makers introduce uncertainty
and complexity in sustainability assessment. The objective of this paper is to
present a method that is composed of a Fuzzy Logic and a Monte Carlo Simulation
(MCS) for the sustainability assessment of urban transportation vehicles and
evaluate the applicability of the method to selected indicators for ranking the
sustainability performance of vehicles. The fuzzy method has been chosen for its
ability to incorporate imprecise and vague information in a decision-making
process and the MCS for its ability to generate many scenarios by considering
the random sampling of each probability distribution of uncertain input values.
The results revealed that by using the fuzzy method alone or with MCS provide
similar rankings, but the MCS adds a layer of statistical confidence in
comparing the sustainability level of various vehicle types.
Sustainable Mobility, Liability, and Public Space in Historic Village Cores: Case Study of Lija, Malta
Maria Attard, University of MaltaShow Abstract
Alberto Miceli Farrugia, Openworkstudio
Jacques Borg Barthet, University of Malta
Since the 1990s the Structure Plan for the Maltese Islands has sought to guide planning in the island state of Malta to encourage socio-economic development, to promote the efficient use of land, and to help improve the environment. The early 90s also witnessed the introduction of Local Councils, representing a first step in the devolution of central state powers on the islands. Amongst their more operational functions within urban areas, the Local Councils are intended to upkeep, maintain and improve roads, to establish and maintain open public spaces, pedestrian and parking areas, and to propose changes in traffic schemes. This paper presents the case study of Lija, a historical village in Malta, and the process involved in the development of a sustainable mobility and urban environment strategy. The objectives of this paper are; (i) to describe the situation in Lija and assess the potential for improving livability, (ii) to document the development of a strategy for sustainable mobility and enhanced quality of life, (iii) to identify the challenges and gaps in the planning and regulatory framework for proposals by Local Councils. The study uses field surveys for the collection of base data and direct observation, with the authors being involved in the development of the strategy. Results show a considerable number of challenges that inhibit Councils’ abilities to be pro-active about their localities’ futures.
Using Onboard Diagnostic and GPS Technology for Pricing of Emissions from On-Road Heavy Duty Vehicle
Yizheng Wu, Beijing Jiaotong UniversityShow Abstract
Daniel Sperling, University of California, Davis
Economists have long urged governments to use Pigouvian taxes to reduce emissions efficiently. Rarely has it happened, mostly because technology hasn’t existed until now to precisely measure in-use emission by location and time. In recent years, increasingly sophisticated on-board diagnostic (OBD) devices have been required for cars and trucks to monitor engine operation and measure in-use fuel consumption and emissions of vehicles. This paper proposes the use of Pigouvian pricing to reduce emissions from on-road heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs)—by utilizing emission data from OBD devices and location data from global position system (GPS) devices. Thus, emissions can be measured over time and space. We address the feasibility of using OBD and GPS devices in this way, taking into account the monitoring system consisting of OBD and GPS, designated area, pricing scheme, and the relationship with other related policies. We conclude that emission data can be collected reliably using OBD technology, and that location- and time-specific pricing policies are technically feasible.
Comparative Assessment of Infrastructure Sustainability Rating Tools
Kerry Griffiths, University of AucklandShow Abstract
Theunis Henning, University of Auckland
Carol Boyle, Deakin University
Following the establishment of sustainability rating schemes for buildings, similar rating schemes for horizontal infrastructure (e.g. road, rail, water) have emerged. The study outlined in this paper assesses the four infrastructure sustainability rating tools currently in use by industry – CEEQUAL, Envision, Infrastructure Sustainability (IS) and Greenroads – and analyzes how they recognize performance, examining similarities and differences. While others have examined the internal workings of such tools, this study takes a new approach by assessing an infrastructure project against each of the four schemes and comparing the results. The study presents a unique perspective on bias within the tools, highlighting how the tools assess and reward projects and the various directions they drive users in to improve sustainability performance. The research provides a comparison of these rating tools, identifies where biases exist and how the user could allow for these biases. Ultimately it could also assist with the selection of the most appropriate tool under different project environments.
Peer-to-Peer Marketplace for Agent-Resource Matching and Truthfulness in Transportation Services
Jane Lin, University of Illinois, ChicagoShow Abstract
Ouri Wolfson, University of Illinois, Chicago
Traffic congestion (and delay) is caused by limited availability of transportation resources (in the form of physical infrastructure such as road space and parking) and/or spatio-temporal mismatch between transportation resources and demand. Limited resource availability is often a hard constraint due to natural resource scarcity (e.g., limited land) or financial infeasibility that is outside the control of a transportation entity. This paper focuses on the latter, i.e., how to improve spatial and temporal allocation/assignment of existing resources to demand. In this paper we introduce a general virtual marketplace, called Spatio-Temporal rEsources Marketplace (STEM), that enables peer-to-peer financial transactions to guarantee that every user is not worse off than in User Equilibrium (UE) in terms of the cost s/he pays and at the same time the overall social welfare (system optimum, SO) is maximized. We show that many transportation services can be viewed as an agent-resource matching problem and formulated by the proposed STEM model. We propose a peer-to-peer Guarantee-Agent-Gain (GAG) payment scheme that is pareto-improving and revenue-neutral if all necessary user (agent) information is true and known to STEM. We then introduce a pricing scheme called TRUTH to incentivize truth-telling or to disincentivize cheating because agents would see no gain by lying in TRUTH. Some thoughts of future research directions are also discussed in the paper.
Integrating Uncertainty Considerations into the Sustainable Transportation Network Design Problem
Xiang Zhang, University of New South WalesShow Abstract
S. Waller, University of New South Wales
David Rey, University of New South Wales
Melissa Duell, University of New South Wales
Few previous works integrated both uncertainty and environment disruption into the traffic network design problem (NDP), despite the critical impact of these two factors in sustainable transportation planning. This study aims to address this gap. First, the mathematical framework of the strategic user equilibrium (StrUE) traffic assignment under volatility of both total travel demand and link capacity is analyzed, which reflects disequilibrium observed in traffic networks. Second, we incorporate the StrUE traffic assignment model into a network design project and propose a multiobjective bi-level program for the sustainable NDP. Two objective functions are formulated, which are respectively to minimize the expected total system travel time and minimize the expected total system off-gas emissions in the uncertainty-based NDP. Third, in the algorithmic framework, we develop two tailored solution methods – one is an exact algorithm and the other one is a metaheuristic method based on a genetic algorithm. Finally, systematic evaluation of the performance of the proposed approach is conducted on three different test networks. The results highlight that ignoring uncertainty considerations can result in sub-optimal design solutions in terms of expected network performance in long-term transportation planning decisions. The results also report that the two objectives, to minimize system-level travel time and vehicle emission, are conflicting for certain uncertainty-based design scenarios.
Keywords: network design
problem, sustainability, uncertainty, environment disruption, strategic user
Introduction of Chinese Plug-in Electric Vehicle Market and an Exploration of Factors Associated with Choice of Plug-in Electric Vehicle
Yan Xing, University of California, DavisShow Abstract
Gil Tal, University of California, Davis
Yunshi Wang, University of California, Davis
The goal of 20% of all road vehicles globally to be electrically driven as of 2030 by the Paris declaration on e-mobility requires a rapid growth rate in PEV sales during the next 15 years. The experience of China, therefore, deserves consideration globally for its dramatic increase of PEV sales, which may suggest some potential for increasing PEV adoptions in other countries. Based on the surveys conducted from July 2015 to February 2016 in Beijing and Shanghai, China, snapshots of the PEV markets in the two cities are taken. Furthermore, potential factors influencing PEV adoptions are explored under experimental conditions. This study shows the consisting structure of current PEV market in China: a certain group of PEV owners with median or low income level motivated more by mobility needs and big incentives on PEVs; while high-end PEV owners with high income level seek more for self or social-identity of representing a high or new technology. It confirms the necessary to improve charging infrastructure, which is still insufficient in China. The effectiveness of the private charging poles on PEV adoption is supported by this empirical study. It also suggests the critical role of incentives plays in achieving PEV success in China.
Do Cultural Differences Matter? Comparison Between Swedish and Chinese Attitudes Toward Sustainable Transportation Policies
Qiyang Liu, University of LeedsShow Abstract
Min He, Kunming University of Science and Technology
Yang Liu, Southeast University
The unsustainable urban transportation system drives researchers and practitioners to consider that how ecological system and human society can remain diverse and productive. Sustainable transportation policies have been implemented in cities across the world, but their effectiveness depends on people's attitudes towards them. The Framework For Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) has been successfully applied to transform urban transportation systems towards sustainability in Swedish cities. However, cultural differences should be taken into consideration before we transfer the FSSD to the Chinese municipalities. Thus, we conducted a qualitative research to explore whether there are significant distinctions between the Swedish and Chinese people's attitudes towards sustainability and sustainable transportation policies. The results show that Swedish people have a better understanding of the social aspects of sustainability. Cultural difference is revealed to be a more important factor than current transportation problems influencing attitude towards sustainable transportation policies. Since sustainable development requires a strategic vision of what should be achieved, the tradition of tactical orientation becomes a barrier to implementing sustainable transportation policies in China. Moreover, Swedish people incline to make self-motivated changes while Chinese people prefer a strong government intervention to push forward the transformation towards sustainable transportation systems. It may be partly affected by the collectivist society which exerts enormous pressure on Chinese people. It suggests that Chinese policy-makers should draw close attention to guide the public to understand what benefits they could derive from a sustainable transportation policy and to make self-motivated changes.
Assessing Alternative Conceptualizations of Sustainable Transportation
Tara Ramani, Texas A&M UniversityShow Abstract
Sustainable transportation continues to be relevant to transportation research, planning, and policy. However, it is a broad concept that is often not clearly defined, leading to vast differences in how sustainability is understood and applied. Further complicating progress toward sustainability in transportation is the emergence of other planning frameworks and discourse that align with sustainability considerations, often without explicit acknowledgement of the same. Examples of such frameworks include livability, health, and resilience.
This paper provides a systematic assessment of what are termed as “alternative conceptualizations” of sustainable transportation. These include initiatives or frameworks that explicitly purport to promote sustainability, as well as those that address sustainability implicitly in their stated values and goals.
The assessment of the various frameworks demonstrated that there are overlaps, as well as significant differences between the alternative conceptualizations of sustainability. A holistic sustainability approach was found to be the most comprehensive, tackling five key elements —environmental, economic, and social dimensions, along with inter- and intra-generational equity considerations.
The findings are a first step in assessing the application of sustainability in transportation, specifically in the context of competing planning frameworks and discourse. It can form the basis for further studies using indicators, and can shed light on whether initiatives geared toward areas such as health, livability, or resilience can serve as proxies for promoting sustainability in the transportation sector.
Sustainable Transportation Index and Its Application to ASEAN Economic Community Countries
Hyejin Lee, Korea Transport Institute (KOTI)Show Abstract
Surachet Pravinvongvuth, Asian Institute of Technology
Similar to other applications, an index is necessary for sustainable transportation planning. There has been a significant growing interest of sustainable transportation in the ten ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) countries as they officially joined hands as a single economic community on Dec 31, 2015. However, available indices might not account for the needs due to the levels of country development, available data, and importance of indicator values. This study proposes an alternative index for sustainable transportation. The proposed index is derived from the Asian Development Bank (ADB)’s definition, which categorizes targets to: (a) accessible, (b) safe, (c) environment-friendly, and (d) affordable. Available indicators from various data sources are identified and selected. The Simple Multi-Attribution Rating Technique (SMART) is used to quantify weights of the selected indicators and to compare AEC countries. In addition, the analysis includes China, Japan, and South Korea as benchmarks to compare as these countries are nearby and highly influence to the AEC region. These countries are well known as the “+3” in the ASEAN Plus Three, which is a forum that functions as a coordinator of co-operation where government leaders, ministers, and senior officials from the 10 AEC countries and the 3 countries consult on an increasing range of issues. Results of the 13 countries are summarized for guidance toward sustainable transportation planning in the AEC. The illustrated methodology is also applicable to other regions or applications.
Keywords: Sustainable transportation index, Sustainable transportation planning, ASEAN economic community, Index developing process, Simple multi-attribute rating technique.
Personal Carbon Trading and Equilibrium Permit Price for Road Transportation
Hyun-Kyung Lee, Seoul National UniversityShow Abstract
Sang-Hyup Lee, Seoul National University
Yeong-Beom Kwon, Seoul National University
Chungwon Lee, Seoul National University
The implementation of personal carbon trading (PCT) on road transportation recently has been considered in the literature in order to mitigate emissions. This paper focuses on the importance of analyzing the consequences of implementing this scheme. The differences between two different equilibrium prices, i.e., type 1 and type 2 prices, were examined. The type 1 price is the equilibrium price of the carbon permit, considering only the current transport demand. However, the type 2 price is the equilibrium price, which considers changes in behavior related to choosing the mode of transportation after the policy is implemented. The utility maximizing equilibrium price is developed for multi-modes with many origin and destination pairs (O-Ds). By illustrating the simple example problem for two modes with a single O-D, the importance of considering the type 2 price is emphasized. Determining where to set the type 1 equilibrium price is done using an optimization tool. The changes in the demand for transport modes are demonstrated by the logit model. Then, the type 2 price is derived by an iterative search algorithm, and the welfare analysis is performed. Compared to the type 1 equilibrium state in the example, in the type 2 equilibrium state, we observed a 41% decrease in price, a 36% increase in automobile demand, and a 4% increase in welfare.
Evaluating the Social in Sustainable Transportation Rating Systems
Kelsey Lineburg, James Madison UniversityShow Abstract
Elise Barrella, DfX Consulting LLC
The goal of this study is to inform transportation professionals about the existing social sustainability gaps in transportation literature and sustainability rating systems. Social sustainability in transportation is comprised of two fundamental concepts: social equity and sustainability of community. Social equity includes accessibility, safety, and health, and sustainability of community includes cohesion, participation, and awareness. A coding system based on a hierarchical representation of social sustainability terminology was developed to categorize the credits of six sustainable transportation rating systems: Greenroads, I-LAST, Envision, INVEST, GreenPaths, and STARS. The results of this study indicate that gaps exist between the definition and application of social sustainability in transportation rating systems. Since research in this sector of sustainability is underdeveloped compared to economic and environmental sustainability, social objectives were largely underrepresented in Envision, Greenroads, and I-LAST. Using a qualitative framework was helpful in understanding where gaps exist since the credits were interpreted based on interrelated themes and descriptors. After evaluating how each rating system quantifies social sustainability objectives, it was determined that GreenPaths and STARS are most inclusive of social credits.
Toward a Sustainability Framework for Hydrogen: Results and Discussion from Expert Roundtable
Marc Melaina, FTXT Energy TechnologiesShow Abstract
Joshua Sperling, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) convened a two-day roundtable to explore options for structuring a new hydrogen regional sustainability (HyReS) framework. This paper presents a review of the literature and synthesis of the roundtable proceedings in order to help develop the HyReS framework, which will function as an information warehouse designed to interface with and feed into other existing sustainability frameworks used to inform specific decision-makers. The development approach includes building on existing sustainability indicators, metrics, and frameworks that have evolved from life cycle- and systems- analysis capabilities examining hydrogen infrastructure development, cost analysis, environmental impacts and market transformation processes. The proposed framework specifically aims to inform and guide research, development, deployment and investment decisions associated with upstream hydrogen production and delivery systems, emphasizing the integration of two currently disparate literatures and research communities on hydrogen fuel cells and sustainable infrastructure systems. Using expert feedback from the roundtable, both important knowledge gaps and new critical knowledge and metrics are proposed via the HyReS framework in ways that bring together sustainability and hydrogen fuel cells communities to explore technology-planning-investment-policy pathways with real-world applications.
Modelling the Influence of Fused Grid Neighborhood Design Principles on Active Transportation Use with emphasis on Street Connectivity
Abdul Rahman Masoud, University of British Columbia, OkanaganShow Abstract
Ahmed Idris, Arab Academy for Science, Technology, Maritime Transport
Gordon Lovegrove, University of British Columbia
Given the limited impact of current neighborhood street pattern designs in promoting more sustainable communities and active life style, the fused grid (Dutch Safe System) neighborhood design principles were developed by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. One of the main distinguishing principles of the fused grid (FG) design relative to contemporary neighborhood patterns are the FG’s higher active transportation (AT) network connectivity versus vehicle network connectivity. This paper reports on research related to the influence of fused grid neighborhood design principles on active transportation use for work and non-work trips by hypothetical retrofitting of an existing neighbourhood using FG design principles. The change in travel time and travel distance due to retrofitting this neighbourhood was expected to cause a modal shift towards greater use of AT; this hypothesis was tested using Multinomial Logit (MNL) mode choice models for the City of Kelowna. Results suggest that the influence of travel time on choosing the auto mode is much stronger and more significant for work trips compared to non-work trips. In addition, the results suggest that applying fused grid principles would be successful in significantly reducing auto use for work trips by approximately 10 percent and increasing AT mode use by 40 percent. However, an insignificant shift in modal share for non-work trips was found, likely due to the fact that no changes to local land uses (e.g. mix, density, etc.) were made in the retrofitted neighborhood case study.
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