Walk Access to Neighborhood Parks: Evaluating Sidewalk Quality and Street Connectivity
Mintesnot Woldeamanuel, California State University, NorthbridgeShow Abstract View Presentation
Neighborhood parks offer open spaces for recreation and physical activity, which are important aspects of a healthy lifestyle. However, poor pedestrian infrastructure and street connectivity in the neighborhoods where the parks are located can deter walk access to those public open spaces. Using data from the field observation and Google Earth, this research evaluates the fundamental accessibility features of the built environment such as sidewalk availability and quality as well as connectivity. The study analyzes both the street network density and the availability/quality of sidewalks within the neighborhood park buffer area by using a Sidewalk Availability and Quality Index (SAQI). By doing so, it recognizes that access is dependent on the pedestrian’s ability to use the road network surrounding a neighborhood park. Besides, Connectivity Index (CI) is calculated as a measure of the degree of pedestrian access through intersection density of the park buffer area. The Connectivity Index recognizes the access disparities among cross intersections, T-intersections and dead-ending/looping street segments, by assigning weights to represent the level of walk access. The SAQI and SI together provide insight into the pedestrian’s ability to access parks through the built environment. This method is demonstrated through the analysis of 10 neighborhood parks in San Fernando Valley, Los Angeles. Using the SAQI and CI analysis, this study identifies actual measurement of walkability of neighborhoods surrounding local parks and proposes possible walk-access solutions.
Pedestrian Path Generation Considering Latent Arrival Time Constraints
Ken Hidaka, Toyota Motor CorporationShow Abstract View Presentation
Keiichiro Hayakawa, Toyota Motor Corporation
Tomoki Nishi, Toyota Motor Corporation
Tomotaka Usui, No Organization
Toshiyuki Yamamoto, Nagoya University
Recent studies have revealed that public spaces such as streets, squares, and plazas play an important role as social spaces, rather than being merely places for pedestrians to pass through. Pedestrian models for generating walking behaviors with detours and pauses would be useful in designing new, attractive, and lively public spaces. Inverse reinforcement learning (IRL) using the massive amount of trajectory data obtained from Global Positioning System, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth devices, among others is a promising approach. This approach comprises two processes: the learning process for learning the reward function, which represents the degree of attractiveness for pedestrians, and the trajectory generation process for generating pedestrian behaviors on the basis of the learned function. However, conventional approaches cannot consider the variations in pedestrian behaviors because they assume that all trajectories are generated from the same reward function with no constraints. In this paper, we focus on the learning process and propose a new approach for learning the reward function from the trajectory data of pedestrians with various arrival time constraints. Specifically, we formalize a new IRL problem to learn the reward function from trajectories with various unknown arrival time constraints based on a probabilistic choice set formation model. We also develop an efficient method for estimating the arrival time constraints and reward function efficiently by using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. We numerically demonstrate that our proposed approach can considerably reduce the error even in the case where the bench mark approach results in strong biases. Our approach would promote a better understanding of pedestrian walking behaviors, which can be utilized for the planning of new public spaces.
Vehicle and Pedestrian Level of Service in Street Designs with Elements of Shared Space
Ioannis Kaparias, University of SouthamptonShow Abstract View Presentation
Rui Wang, University of Southampton
Inspired by developments in urban planning, the concept of “shared space” has recently emerged as a way of creating a better public realm. This is achieved through a range of streetscape treatments aimed at asserting the function of streets as places by facilitating pedestrian movement and lowering vehicle traffic volumes and speeds. The characteristics of streets with elements of shared space point to the conjecture that traffic conditions and road user perceptions may be different to those on streets designed according to more conventional principles, and this is likely to have an impact on the quality of service. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to perform an analysis in terms of Level of Service (LOS) and to investigate how this may change as a result of the implementation of street layouts with elements of shared space. Using video data from the Exhibition Road site in London during periods before and after its conversion from a conventional dual carriageway to a layout featuring a number of elements of shared space, changes in terms of LOS for both vehicle traffic and pedestrians are investigated, by applying the corresponding methods from the 2010 Highway Capacity Manual. The results suggest that streets with elements of shared space provide a much improved pedestrian experience, as expressed by higher LOS ratings, but without compromising the quality of vehicle traffic flow, which, in fact, also sees slight improvements.
Pedestrian Crossing Warrants for Urban Midblock Sections Under Mixed Traffic Conditions
Hareshkumar Golakiya, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of TechnologyShow Abstract
Ashish Dhamaniya, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat
Satish Chandra, CSIR-CRRI
Omkrishan Sharma, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology
Pedestrian crossing infrastructure is fundamentally aimed to provide a bridge between activities on either side of the road. However, in developing countries like India, the need for effective and efficient pedestrian crossing infrastructure is often neglected, which result in amplified pedestrian-vehicle interactions, especially at urban midblock sections. This increased interaction between pedestrian and vehicle has a significant effect on pedestrian safety, operational performance of crossing infrastructure (pedestrian delay) and traffic flow characteristics (capacity, speed, and delay). Available pedestrian crossing warrants based on PV 2 (where P is the volume of crossing pedestrians per hour and V is per hour traffic volume) focus on the safe movement of pedestrians, but traffic operation is least considered in such warrants. The present study deals with the development of pedestrian crossing facility warrants based on pedestrian safe movement along with vehicular delay, which includes traffic efficiency as well. The traffic data collected from four different locations using videographic survey are used for evaluating the delay for the individual vehicle due to pedestrian crossings. The total delay is assessed for the traffic stream, and it is found to follow a second-degree polynomial relationship with PV 2 . The clustering analysis is carried out using k-means clustering to define a threshold value for different pedestrian crossing facilities. Pedestrian crossing facility warrants are also identified on the basis of PV 2 utilizing the relationship between total delay and PV 2 . The results of the present will be useful for practicing engineers for designing pedestrian crossing facilities.
Pedestrian Volume Modeling and Risk Mapping in Philadelphia
Tyler Tran, University City DistrictShow Abstract
Seth Budick, University City District
Data about pedestrian volumes are relatively limited in most cities, as transportation planning has historically been oriented to serve the needs of vehicles. We present a pedestrian volume model for the University City area of Philadelphia, a 2.4 square mile residential neighborhood and major employment center. Pedestrian volume models have applications in infrastructure planning, commercial real estate, advertising, and public safety. Using pedestrian counts from 50 locations in the district, pedestrian volumes were estimated on all street segments using a combination of variables pertaining to the configuration of the street network, spatial patterns in employment, and transit ridership. Space syntax metrics and demographic data were integrated with the pedestrian counts using a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model with goodness of fit in line with comparable published models (pseudo-R2 = 0.80). The volume model was applied as a measure of pedestrian exposure to assess pedestrian risk in University City with the use of car crash data and locations of perceived danger for pedestrians. We hope that this research will prove useful in identifying locations for potential infrastructure and design improvements, and that this work will help improve pedestrian safety throughout Philadelphia.
Measuring Perceptions of Social Environments for Walking: A Systematic Review of Walkability Surveys
Nicole Iroz-Elardo, University of ArizonaShow Abstract View Presentation
Arlie Adkins, University of Arizona
Maia Ingram, University of Arizona
Neighborhood walkability is an important determinant of physical activity and health. However much of the research has focused on built environment characteristics potentially de-emphasising social environments. This review documents the current state of the practice for measurement of perceived social elements of walkability. We systematically identified 20 instruments that focused on walkability or physical activity at the local (neighborhood) scale to capture resident’s perceptions of both their physical and social environments; all were developed before 2010. Across the 20 instruments, we identified 182 distinct items that measured social environments. We categorized items into thirteen domains across four domain clusters (social capital, personal safety, physical signifiers and general neighborhood descriptors) finding most instruments emphasized a couple domain clusters instead of clearly and holistically conceptualizing social environments. Many items emphasized negative social elements such as crime and disorder. Only a few items focused on community identify. Some items were general enough to make translation into practice unclear. This information suggests researchers revisit the conceptualization and measurement of the social walkability environment.
The Role of the Natural and Built Environment in Different Types of Walking Duration in the Netherlands
Jie Gao, Nagoya UniversityShow Abstract
Carlijn Kamphuis, Universiteit Utrecht
Marco Helbich, Utrecht University Faculty of Geosciences: Universiteit Utrecht Faculteit Geowetenschappen
Dick Ettema, Utrecht University Faculty of Geosciences: Universiteit Utrecht Faculteit Geowetenschappen
Previous studies distinguished between transport-related walking and recreational walking. However, transport-related walking could be further refined in transit-related and non-transit-related transport walking, since these are very different behaviors. Further, associations between environmental characteristics and walking can differ for weekdays and weekends. The aim of this study is to examine to what extent different types of walking correlated, and how were these differently affected by natural and the built environment characteristics for weekdays and weekends. Our sample comprised 92,298 people aged 18+ years from the Dutch National Travel Survey 2010-2014. Multivariate Tobit regression models were used to assess the associations between the natural and built environment and three types of walking behaviour (in average minutes per day), while also be able to deal with correlations between three types of walking behavior (e.g., compensation effects). Residential areas with a higher address density, a highly connected street network, a shorter distance to nearest train station, and a pronounced number of bus stops encouraged transit-related transport walking on both weekdays and weekends. Shorter distances to utilitarian destinations were more important for non-transit-related transport walking during weekdays. A less address density was positively associated with longer recreational walking during weekdays, while no significant associations were found at weekends. The results revealed some compensation effects between different types of walking: during weekends, recreational walking was inversely correlated with transit-related transport walking. Our findings suggest that one size does not fit all and to facilitate policy makers and urban planners to target neighborhoods with specific environmental characteristics.
Pedestrian Network Design Model with Application
Christina Iliopoulou, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA)Show Abstract View Presentation
Maria Tseliou, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA)
Konstantinos Kepaptsoglou, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA)
Stratos Papadimitriou, University of Piraeus
The transformation of urban roadways into pedestrian streets is a popular measure for reshaping city parts and enhancing their livability. Nevertheless, pedestrianization schemes are expected to have some impact on the performance of the neighboring road network, especially if these are established ad-hoc or solely based on non-transport criteria. This study introduces a methodological tool for supporting decisions on implementing pedestrianization schemes in urban networks. A bi-level network design model variant is developed for that purpose, whose design objective is to maximize the extent of pedestrian streets in an urban network, while maintaining acceptable impacts to the performance of the road network. Alternative decisions on pedestrianization are considered for each network segment; these include partial (one-directional) or complete (bi-directional) pedestrianization under physical and operational criteria and constraints. The model is applied for a mid-sized urban network in Greece and solved using a genetic algorithm. Results are subsequently discussed and useful conclusions are summarized.
A Pedestrian Satisfaction–Based Methodology for Prioritization of Critical Sidewalk and Crosswalk Elements Influencing Safety and Walkability
Bandhan Majumdar, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, PilaniShow Abstract View Presentation
Nikitha Vendotti, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Mallikarjun Patil, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Hyderabad
Prasanta Sahu, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
In this paper, a pedestrian-satisfaction-based methodology was demonstrated to identify and prioritize a key set of elements influencing safety and walkability at sidewalks and crosswalks. Based on a state-of-the art review, an exhaustive set of fifteen sidewalk and eleven crosswalk-elements influencing safety and walkability were identified. Subsequently, a questionnaire was designed to collect pedestrian’s perception on relative-importance and satisfaction associated with the set of identified elements in a typical five-point likert-scale. Then, the designed questionnaire was used to conduct face-to-face surveys at selected pedestrian-crash-prone locations in Hyderabad, India and a comprehensive pedestrian-perception-database was developed. Consequently, TOPSIS, an extensively adopted Multi-attribute-decision-making technique was used to rank the identified-elements based on the collected data. Afterwards, importance-satisfaction-analysis (ISA) was used to cluster the elements in four quadrants based on their associated-degree of importance and satisfaction. Both TOPSIS and ISA were used to estimate and compare the relative strength and weakness of various sidewalk and crosswalk-elements. Results indicated that Physical-separation from traffic, sidewalk-amenities, width, continuity and sidewalk cleanliness are the most important, but poorly performing sidewalk-elements from user perspective. Among crosswalk-elements, vehicle stop-line behavior, conflicts with turning-traffic, zebra-crossing, pedestrian holding-space were observed to be the priority areas requiring immediate attention, however traffic-speed and traffic-volume were observed to be perceived with low priority by pedestrians. These results could be key-inputs for rational decision-making with respect to pedestrian infrastructure improvement in Indian-settings. Based on the study results, necessary mitigation measures can be adopted to improve the overall safety-condition of both sidewalks and crosswalks at critical locations.
Evaluating Walkable Streets with a 3D Stated Preference Survey
Dena Kasraian, Eindhoven UniversityShow Abstract View Presentation
Sneha Adhikari, University of Toronto
David Kossowsky, Esri Canada
Michael Luubert, Esri Canada
Brent Hall, Esri Canada
Jason Hawkins, University of Toronto
Khandker Nurul Habib, University of Toronto
Jeremy Bowes, OCAD University
Sara Diamond, OCAD University
Paul Hess, University of Toronto
Michael Wolfe, Waterfront Toronto
Judy Farvolden, University of Toronto
Matthew Roorda, University of Toronto
In many places, streets are still primarily designed for the convenience of motorists, considering mobility function as the principal design goal. There is a scarcity of empirical evidence on the relationship between the design of a street and how it is experienced by pedestrians who use it. This work focuses on quantifying pedestrians’ perception of walkability through a stated preference (SP) survey using a dynamic 3D representation of various street designs in Toronto, Canada. The SP scenarios are generated through a rule-based 3D environment (created using Esri’s CityEngine) and animated using a gaming engine (Unity). A random sample of 600 Torontonians is used for the empirical investigation by estimating a mixed multinomial logit model. The results indicate that there is a high preference for streets that include transit lanes as opposed to just car-exclusive lanes, with participants without a driver’s license showing a higher preference for the transit-only lanes. Furthermore, two-way cycle paths on the curb lane is rated as the highest preference in general and by regular cyclists in particular. Finally, the presence of trees on the sidewalk is highly preferred. Pedestrians are willing to trade sidewalk width for the presence of trees and outdoor dining. The survey’s innovative presentation mode and its findings can contribute to the development of much-needed evidence-based design tools to assess the trade-offs required between the many possible uses of roadway space, while focusing on the overlooked role of the pedestrian experience.
A Deep Neural Network Approach for Pedestrian Trajectory Prediction Considering Heterogeneity
Hossein Nasr Esfahani, Utah State UniversityShow Abstract View Presentation
Ziqi Song, Utah State University
Recent advances in artificial neural networks (ANN) have paved the way for the development of sophisticated models that help to predict human movements more realistically than traditional models. Building on existing progress, this study seeks to predict pedestrian walking behavior when passing through a bottleneck in a heterogeneous flow involving individuals with disabilities. A novel long-short-term memory (LSTM)-based deep neural network is designed, capable of handling different walking behaviors of individuals with and without disabilities. This network consists of three different modules: the Disability module, the Environment module, and the Trajectory Prediction module. The first two modules strive to extract important information about the overall walking behaviors of individuals and their neighboring figures, respectively, while the last module uses that information along with the previous spatial and speed information of each individual to predict his/her future spatial information. To train and test the network, the data from a large-scale experiment on pedestrian walking behavior involving individuals with disabilities was used. This data consists of several experiments, each of which tries to capture the essence of individuals’ walking behavior in a different situation. By sequencing and normalizing the input data and applying regularization techniques, the network is successfully trained. The results are compared to that of state-of-the-art models, demonstrating that the network is capable of more realistically predicting pedestrian trajectories with and without disabilities. It outperforms other models such as the social force model (SFM), shallow fully connected neural networks, and plain LSTMs in terms of mean square error.
A Natural Experiment to Assess the Impacts of Street-Level Urban Design Interventions on Walkability and Business Activity
Maher Said, Northwestern UniversityShow Abstract
Georges Geha, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Maya Abou-Zeid, American University of Beirut
This study uses a natural experiment in Beirut, Lebanon, to investigate the effects of a street-level urban design intervention that improved the walking environment through a wider sidewalk, removal of a parking lane, raised junctions, and other elements. We analyze the impacts on pedestrian traffic and flow, pedestrian satisfaction with the walking experience, and commercial activity and business managers’ attitudes. Difference-in-difference regressions suggest that the main effect of such interventions is not necessarily an increase in pedestrian traffic, but instead safer pedestrian maneuvering and a better walking experience. It is also found through descriptive analysis that while businesses and shops experience increased business post-intervention, noticeable dissatisfaction with the intervention is reported by managers and owners. It is hypothesized that this dissatisfaction is a result of the lengthy construction process renovating and refurbishing the street and the removal of parking spaces. Policy recommendations are drawn for the mitigation of business managers’ concerns and the enhancement of elements of the walking environment for the design of future similar interventions.
Equity in Pedestrian Plans
Amber Berg, Arkansas Economic Development InstituteShow Abstract View Presentation
Gregory Newmark, Kansas State University
Transportation equity seeks to eliminate disparities in the transportation system, especially regarding how automobile-oriented development has negatively impacted low-income communities and communities of color. This issue has been long understood by transportation professionals, and federal agencies have attempted to address the concern under environmental justice legislation. However, there has been little instruction for transportation agencies in achieving equity and measuring equity impacts remains incommensurable. Some researchers suggest that eliminating disparities in pedestrian networks will have the greatest impact in making strides toward equity, yet researchers seldom study the relationship between pedestrian planning and transportation equity research. This research fills this gap by examining equity considerations in pedestrian master plans of 15 of the most populous U.S. cities. We argue that equity should be included in transportation plans, especially pedestrian master plans. Drawing on existing components of pedestrian plans, we propose an equity framework consisting of three approaches: Recognition, Development, and Prioritization. This framework was developed by first conducting a literature review about transportation equity, then documenting what equity considerations exist in pedestrian master plans, and lastly by assessing to what extent these plans address equity. We find that equity is often recognized as a concern by transportation agencies, but this concern is not always translated into plan development or prioritization schemes. It is recommended that, to meaningfully make strides in achieving equity, cities must incorporate all three equity approaches proposed by this research to address disparities in all facets of a plan.
Planning Suburban Sidewalks: A Study of Mode Mismatch, Property Values, and Accessibility
Leoma Van Dort, University of Minnesota, Twin CitiesShow Abstract View Presentation
Austin Hauf, University of Minnesota
Haley Sevening, University of Minnesota
Erin Daly, University of Minnesota
Alena DeGrado, University of Minnesota
Greg Lindsey, University of Minnesota
Policymakers and planners need evidence about people’s use and perception of sidewalks to plan pedestrian-friendly streets and walkable environments. Using St. Louis Park, Minnesota as a case study, we examine three questions that can help suburban cities better understand the opportunities, challenges, and benefits related to building sidewalks: (1) How do residents perceive and use sidewalks?; (2) How do sidewalks affect property values of single-family homes?; and (3) How will the continued implementation of sidewalks impact pedestrian access to destinations? To answer these questions, we use a mixed-methods approach including a web-based survey of residents, a hedonic regression analysis of residential property values, and a GIS-based analysis of pedestrian accessibility to multiple destinations. We find that: (1) Most respondents would prefer to walk to most destinations more than they currently do, resulting in a mode mismatch; (2) Sidewalks have no statistically significant effects on residential property values; and (3) Construction of planned sidewalks generally is equitably distributed among white and non-white households. Both our methodology and findings have relevance for other suburban communities interested in an evidence-based approach to addressing the needs and concerns of their residents, building walkable neighborhoods, and ensuring accessibility to important destinations via sidewalks.
Application and Effect Research of Virtual Reality in Evaluation of Walking Experience of Branch Roads
Ying Hui, Tongji UniversityShow Abstract View Presentation
Yujiao Wang, Tongji University
Recent concepts such as “Narrow Road, Dense Road Network” and “Complete Streets” have had a significant influence on street walkability research. Evaluating walking experience is the basis of the development of complete streets and street re-design, but, at present, research regarding how best to go about such an evaluation is far from perfect. Virtual Reality technology is now commonplace and may make the acquisition of certain indicators possible, but its applicability to the evaluation of walking experiences has yet to be tested. We took 8 typical branch roads in Shanghai and evaluated the walking experience through field survey, picture survey and VR survey. The three methods focused on evaluating street space allocation, street vitality and street planting. Aspects of the physical environment were correlated to explore applicable scenarios and the evaluation effects of the VR survey. Finally, a hierarchical multiple linear regression model was established to calculate the index weights for the different approaches so as to be able to compare the evaluation results of the VR survey according to specific indicators. The conclusions indicate that the VR survey is useful for evaluating the walking experience of medium-ranked commercial and residential streets. It offers particular advantages for evaluating residential street space allocation where the effective width of the pedestrian area is relatively large, street vitality where the shop density is low and pedestrians cannot cross the street at random, and the street planting on commercial streets where there is less greenery and residential streets where is more greenery.
A Behavioral Based Pedestrian Modeling Approach: Formulation, Sensitivity Analysis, and Calibration
Samer Hamdar, George Washington UniversityShow Abstract
Alireza Talebpour, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Kyla D'Sa, George Washington University
Victor Knoop, Delft University of Technology
Winnie Daamen, Delft University of Technology
Martin Treiber, Technische Universitat Dresden
Pedestrians are among the most vulnerable travelers to collisions that are associated with high fatality and injury rates. Moreover, the increasing rate of urbanization and mixed land-use construction make walking (along with other non-motorized travel) a predominant transportation mode with a wide variety of behaviors expected. Due to the inherent safety concerns seen in pedestrian transportation infrastructures especially those with conflicting multi-modal movements expected (cross-walks, transit platforms ...etc.), it is important that pedestrian behavior is modeled as a risk-taking stochastic behavior that may lead to errors and thus collision formation. In previous work, the complexity and the cost associated with building pedestrian models in a cognitive-based environment weighted down the construction of simulation tools that can capture pedestrian involved collisions including those seen in shared space environments. In this paper, we initiate such tool that will help evaluate the safety of pedestrian traffic: an extended modeling framework of pedestrian walking behavior is adopted while incorporating different physiological, physical and decision-making elements. The focus is on operational decisions (i.e. paths choices defined by longitudinal and lateral trajectories) with pre-specified set of origins and destinations. The model relies on the Prospect Theory paradigm where pedestrians evaluate their acceleration and directional alternatives while considering the possibility of colliding with other particles. Using a Genetic Algorithm Method, the new model is calibrated using detailed trajectory data. This model can be extended to model the interactions between a variety of different modes that are present in different mixed land-use environments.
Exploring the Trend of Walkability Measures by Applying Hierarchical Clustering Technique
MD MEHEDI HASAN, AECOMShow Abstract View Presentation
Jun-Seok Oh, Western Michigan University
Over the last two decades, many walkability attributes/variables were considered in measuring walkability scores with different methods and approaches. In this study, the trend of walkability measures is investgated over the years in terms of study locations, the analysis scale, approaches to measuring variables, and methods/tools for determining walkability. This paper, through a literature review, analyzes and compares the walkability studies over the past two decades in a more comprehensive and efficient way. A total of 83 articles from 40 journals and conference proceedings were selected through a systematic and sequential procedure. In order to explore the research trend among those reviewed articles, we applied a hierarchical clustering technique. The result of this review reveals that research on walkability tends to shift from a neghiborhood-level analysis to a street-level microscopic analysis. Different image and instrument audit tools are using nowadays instead of traditional physical audit tools for measuring walkability. In terms of walkability variables, objectively-measured street-level urban design qualities (e.g. comfort/convenience, aesthetics, sidewalk design, etc.) gained much interest in recnt years in comparison to traditionally used attributes (e.g. roadway level of service). This study provides a future direction in walkability research in continuation with the recent walkability trend and data analysis. This study shows that there are needs for tools automatically collecting walkability data by taking advantage from recent advances in machiene learning and image processing technologies.
Practical Evaluation Method for Policies to Improve Walkability in Central Urban Area Using Pedestrian Behavior Modeling
Ryoji Ishii, The Institute of Behavioral SciencesShow Abstract View Presentation
Masahiko Kikuchi, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
Keita Iwadate, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
Eiji Hato, Tokyo Daigaku
Takahiro Ishigami, The Institute of Behavioral Sciences
Wataru Mogi, The Institute of Behavioral Sciences
Based on the assumption that the overall flow of people in a district varies depending on planning for individual facilities and related transportation policies, it is important that when considering policies for city center planning, such facilities are designed to ease human activity. Furthermore, the use of behavioral models explaining why behaviors change based on decision-making frameworks has a great affinity with, and facilitates the explanation of, results of consensus building, for example, in infrastructure development. Thus, the aim of this study is to propose a framework for a simulation based on pedestrian behavior modeling. We propose a simulation structure that ensures an appropriate evaluation of transportation policies such as facility allocation and walkway development from the viewpoints of staying time and pedestrian flow volume. Probe person survey data obtained in a case study in Okayama City were used in trial calculations to demonstrate the practicability of the simulation.
What Street Improvements Better Promote Active Travel?: A Case Study of the Seattle Neighborhood Greenway
Jiarui Tao, Unison Consulting, Inc.Show Abstract View Presentation
Neighborhood greenways optimize bicycle and pedestrian travel with a variety of safety treatments of street design, including speed limits, traffic calming, pavement marks, sidewalk repairs, and crossing improvements. This paper investigates the relationship between the satisfaction with various street design treatments and active travel intention, by analyzing online survey results from the 2014 Seattle neighborhood greenway evaluation. Six hundred respondents reported satisfaction towards street design updates, travel behavior changes, and perceived active travel volume difference before and after citywide neighborhood greenway projects. Geocoded census and land use data were joined according to project location. Discrete choice models revealed that satisfaction towards crossing upgrades, stop signs, and pavement markings stood out as strongest predictors for encouraging walking and biking activity. Satisfaction towards pavement repair and speed limit signs, instead, appeared insignificant in explaining greenway use. Additionally, household density and perceived popularity of greenways were associated with active travel increase. The results imply that greater behavioral outcomes could be achieved when incorporating perceptional effects and user satisfaction for safety intervention using street design. This study will help in project prioritization and evaluation of active transportation infrastructure improvements.