Intelligent Transportation Systems are making the bus transit system operations smarter and more efficient. Many transit agencies have adopted a number of different intelligent transportation systems in order to enhance and/or supplement their transit services to the public. This session discusses the analysis of bus-related traffic delays, bus commercial speed, and bus holding control. One of the intelligent transportation system technologies, bus priority signal and its implementation lesson, is presented. Audiences who are interested in bus transit operations and intelligent transportation systems are welcome to join this session.
Implementation of Bus Priority with Queue Jump Lane with Pre-Signal at Urban Intersections with Mixed Traffic Operations: Lessons Learned
Kinjal Bhattacharyya, Indian Institute of Technology KharagpurShow Abstract
Prof. Bhargab Maitra, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Manfred Boltze, Professor
In mixed traffic streams, especially near the intersections, buses suffer significantly due to congestion and excessive delays compared to other modes as they operate on fixed routes. To increase the attractiveness of bus journeys by improving schedule-reliability and reducing journey times, it is necessary to give priority to buses by segregating them from the main traffic stream. However, the road space is generally constrained in the cities and dedicated bus lanes are not a feasible solution in the majority of urban centres. This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of queue jump lanes (QJL) with and without pre-signal for non-priority traffic. The impacts on traffic and bus operations are analyzed based on implementations at two signalized approaches with distinct traffic and roadway characteristics in the Kolkata city, India. The field implementation indicated travel time savings to passengers as a whole with variations with respect to different scenarios. Impacts on travel time and vehicle discharge yielded the effective benefits of the bus priority implementation. It was also meaningful and interesting to investigate the impacts on driver behavior in terms of bus stop manuevres, and the social acceptability of such implementation. The changes in safety-related aspects and driver violations are some of the aspects which could not be directly investigated in an analytical or micro-simulation platform, but needed a field implementation. The experiences gained from the field implementation of bus priority with QJL are expected to encourage practitioners to apply similar treatments in other cities in emerging countries with analogous operating conditions.
Evaluation of Bus-Bike and Bus–Right Turn Traffic Delays and Conflicts
Katherine Keeling, Portland State UniversityShow Abstract
Travis Glick, Portland State University
Miles Crumley, Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District
Miguel Figliozzi, Portland State University
This research evaluates delays caused by bus interactions with bicycles and right-turning at a high-traffic transit corridor in Portland, OR. The study site has a near-side bus stop and a right lane utilized only by buses and right-turning traffic. A high number of bicycles also utilize the study site. The study site has a bicycle lane along its length and a bicycle box just ahead of the bus stop (between the intersection and the bus stop). This research analyzes two concerns caused by these overlapping transit, bicycle, and automobile facilities. The first concern is the number of conflicts (as a proxy for safety) and the second is bus delay. Video data was collected and analyzed to quantify conflicts and delays. Automatic traffic count data as well as AVL transit data were also utilized to analyze 78 different possible combinations of bus, bicycle, and automobile interactions. A sizable annual number of complex bus-bicycle conflicts was estimated. A regression analysis was performed to identify potential sources of delays. The results indicate that each bicycle crossing the intersection after the bus (within 65 feet of bus) contributes to bus delay. No statistically significant delay was found from the bicycles stopped in the bicycle box, bicycles stopped behind the bicycle box, or bicycles that cross the intersection before the bus.
Bus Holding Control of Running Buses in Time Windows
Konstantinos Gkiotsalitis, University of TwenteShow Abstract
Oded Cats, Delft University of Technology
This work proposes a periodic bus holding control method where the bus holding times of all running trips are computed simultaneously within each optimization time period; thus, increasing the coordination among running buses to avoid bus bunching. We consider the adverse effects of the bus holding control on the in-vehicle travel times of on-board passengers and formulate holistic bus holding decisions by modeling the bus holding problem as a discrete, nonlinear, constrained optimization problem. Given the computational complexity of the bus holding problem, an alternating minimization approach is introduced for computing the optimal holding times at each optimization instance. The performance of the periodic control method is evaluated against the performance of event-based control methods using 5-month automated vehicle location and automated passenger count data from bus line 1 in Stockholm demonstrating an improvement potential of 5% for the in-vehicle travel times and 11% for the service regularity.
A Case Study on the Effects of the Mandatory Validation on Bus Commercial Speed
Cristina Pronello, Sorbonne UniversitésShow Abstract
Jean-Baptiste Gaborieau, Politecnico di Torino
Valentina Rappazzo, Politecnico di Torino
The paper aims to define the new operational requirements and procedures to allow the GTT (Torino public transport company) to implement mandatory validation without negative impacts on both the company and the users. To this end, a four-step methodology has been put forward: a) choice of the reference route and trip sampling; b) data acquisition; c) boarding time analysis and d) future scenario definition. Attained results show that the most unfavourable situation for the company is banning people from boarding the bus/tram through any door (the case today) because it requires, in order to maintain the same time interval at bus stops, an increase of trips in the morning peak hour. Thus, the present system limits the outcomes negatively for the users in terms of waiting time. However, a change could lead to such positive consequences as fuller passenger cooperation to validate tickets/passes and a more ordered boarding, thus reducing fraud and improving the image of the company.