More research on safety management from a comprehensive, systems approach is desirable. In this poster session, each author will present a poster depicting his or her research addressing various aspects of safety management from systems planning through evaluation. Meet the authors for a one-on-one discussion.
Identification of the Factors Affecting Injury Severity Using the Korean In-Depth Accident Study Database and Its Application
Seolyoung Lee, Hanyang UniversityShow Abstract
Eunbi Jeong, Korea Railroad Research Institute
Cheol Oh, Hanyang University
Gunwoo Lee, Chung-Ang University
Derivation of the contributing factors and understanding of the interactions among them are of keen interest in deriving effective countermeasures to enhance traffic safety. In-vehicle safety measures are expected to reduce the injury severity of occupants when a crash occurs. However, few efforts have been made in conducting an effectiveness analysis of such in-vehicle safety measures using an in-depth crash database that includes not only crash severity data but also on-the-scene crash information obtained from the accident reconstruction. This study analyzed crash severity using an ordered probit model to identify the contributing factors based on the Korean In-Death Accident Study (KIDAS) Database. In addition, the statistical relationship between the collision speeds and the crush extents were further analyzed. A method to evaluate the safety benefits that would be potentially obtained from the analyses conducted in this study was proposed, and an application was presented. This study should be useful in promoting the rapid propagation of in-vehicle safety measures and developing relevant policies.
Identification of Regional Safety Performance Using In-Vehicle Hazardous Driving Event Data in Public Transportation Systems
Serona Choi, Transportation Safety Research and Development Institute, Korea Transportation Safety AuthorityShow Abstract
Subin Park, Hanyang University
Cheol Oh, Hanyang University
Sungmin Hong, Korea Transportation Safety Authority
Shinhye Joo, Hanyang University
Assessing the safety performance of local jurisdictional areas is essential for the central government to support policy-making activities and efficient budget allocation. This study proposes a novel method to evaluate the regional safety performance in Korea based on in-vehicle hazardous driving event data collected from an on-board device, which is called a digital tachograph (DTG). Hazardous driving events in public transportation vehicles such as buses and taxies collected at the national-level were systematically analyzed and further applied to input features of a support vector machine (SVM) to identify the levels of safety performance by local jurisdictional areas. Then, the SVM model performance was evaluated using a cross validation method. The promising result of a classification accuracy of approximately 80% demonstrates that the proposed methodology is useful to facilitate effective decision-making by the central government to support the improvement of traffic safety for local jurisdictional governments in Korea.
A Study of Safety-Oriented Evaluation Model for Road Maintenance in China
Yuexin Lou, Tongji UniversityShow Abstract
Shengdi Chen, Shanghai Maritime University
Jian Lu, Tongji University
In China, existing road maintenance standards and codes mainly focus on evaluating the conditions of the road usage to prolong the service life of the road, taking no account of road safety. Moreover, the safety evaluation system is imperfect, while the evaluation criterion and results are not intuitive and concise. In a view of deficiencies of the present evaluation system of road safety maintenance and management, this paper aims at providing a more objective and comprehensive evaluation model for road maintenance by taking road safety factors into account. Road intersection and section are chosen as evaluation objects according to road differences, and five major impact factors are incorporated in a four-level analytic hierarchy method, in order to derive a more objective and comprehensive evaluation system. Evaluation criteria are established for each indicator and their rationality is verified by Kendall’s W method. An evaluation model is thus developed based on synthetical index method, and parameters are calibrated by principal component analysis and weight factor judgment table. Field data are collected from Wenchuan road, Hutai road, and S20 road in Shanghai. This model is further validated through field evaluations and expert scores, the correlation coefficient of 0.9353, 0.8609 and 0.8832 are obtained. In comparison with other models, the R2 indicates that the model yields better results with higher coefficient of determination. Then, four levels (A to D) were used to evaluate road maintenance safety performance, with A indicating the highest road safety and D indicating the lowest road safety, providing a scientific and accurate basis for road safety maintenance program.
Hot Spot Identification of Urban Arterials at the Meso Level
Jia Li, Beijing University of TechnologyShow Abstract
Xuesong Wang, Tongji University
Urban arterials form the main structure of street networks. They typically have high traffic volume and high crash frequency. Hotspot identification (HSID) is the first step for traffic safety management process and often utilizes crash prediction models. The classical crash prediction models investigate the relationship between arterial characteristics and traffic safety at micro level, since they treat road segments and intersections as isolated units. This micro-level analysis has limitations when examining urban arterial crashes because: 1) signal spacing is typically short for urban arterials in dense street network, and there are interactions between intersections and road segments that classical models do not accommodate; 2) in practical engineering, a hotspot consists of several adjacent intersections and road segments instead of a single intersection or road segment. Taking these into account, a meso-level unit that combined signalized intersections and their adjacent road segments as a whole was adopted. To investigate the suitable research unit and method for urban arterial HSID, this study identified hazardous micro-level (intersections or road segments) and meso-level units at the same time using crash frequency, empirical Bayesian (EB), potential for safety improvement (PSI), and full Bayesian (FB) methods. Consistency was tested to evaluate the performance of the HSID methods. The results showed that 1) meso-level units performed better than micro-level units regardless of which HSID method was adopted; 2) EB and PSI performed better than the other methods no matter for which research unit; 3) there was a big difference between the identified hazardous micro- and meso-level units.
Assessing Collaboration Processes and Performance Outcomes: An Analysis of Regional Safety Coalitions
Janille Smith-Colin, Southern Methodist UniversityShow Abstract
Lanxi Liu, Southern Methodist University
Development and implementation of a local road safety plan (LRSP) has recently been adopted as a proven safety countermeasure. Yet little knowledge exists about how to effectively engage safety-related partners in a process of collaboration and coordination that results in an implementable local road safety plan. This research investigated one state’s effort to develop a regional approach to safety plan development using regional safety coalitions. Evaluating ongoing efforts to develop regional safety plans is useful because of the potential to identify risks and opportunities for the development of local road safety plans. An embedded case study of nine regional safety coalitions was used to highlight opportunities for improving the collaborative processes used to engage coalition members. A survey was developed and disseminated to coalition members to assess perceptions of the collaboration process, and to identify member perceptions of each coalition’s performance. The results from this research contribute to a broader understanding of safety plan development models currently in use by highlighting a regional approach. Additionally, this research outlines a process for evaluating efforts at the regional scale that may be adapted and implemented by local partners in the development of a local road safety plan.
Likelihood of Involvement in Traffic Crashes: Introducing Home-Based Approach
Amin Mohamadi Hezaveh, University of Tennessee, KnoxvilleShow Abstract
Christopher Cherry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
It is well-known that the crash rate varies across countries, one may question that how does crash rate of individuals who lives in a certain geographic area vary within a country in a fine geographic level; to the best of authors’ knowledge, no study has explored this issue. The predominant approach of road safety analysis attributes focuses on the location of traffic crashes, which makes measuring individuals’ likelihood of involvement in traffic crashes (e.g., crash rate) challenging. In this study, we established Home-Based Approach (HBA) definition to complement the traditional definition of the road safety that focuses on the residential location, i.e., the expected number of crashes that road users who live in a certain geographic area have during a specified period. We use the addresses of the individual who had a direct role in traffic crashes to evaluate road safety at the zonal level. Census tract and police report crashes were used to extract the location of the traffic crashes and home-address of road users in Tennessee, and accompanying socioeconomics. Findings indicate that a mixed-effect negative binomial model was more suitable than a fixed-effect model for HBA crash frequency. Findings indicate that education, age cohorts between 16-42, and 43-60 years, share of motorized transport mode to work, portion of individuals with college-degree, and vehicles per capita have positive associations with HBA crash frequency. Instead, median household income and percent of White race have a negative association with HBA crash frequency. Findings are discussed in line with road safety countermeasures.
Comprehensive Cost of Traffic Crashes at Zonal Level
Amin Mohamadi Hezaveh, University of Tennessee, KnoxvilleShow Abstract
Amin Mohamadi Hezaveh, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Christopher Cherry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Global road safety records demonstrated the spatial variation of comprehensive cost of traffic crashes; to the best of our knowledge, no study has explored the variation of this matter at a fine geographical level. This study proposes a method to estimate the comprehensive crash cost at zonal level by using person injury cost unit. The current metric of road safety attributes safety to the location of the crash, which makes it challenging to assign the crash cost to the origin of the individuals who were involved in traffic crashes. To overcome this limitation, we introduced Home-Based Approach as the expected number of crashes by severity that road users who live in a certain geographic area have during a specified period. Home addresses of individuals who were involved in traffic crashes in Tennessee were assigned to their corresponding census tract. The average comprehensive crash cost per capita (CCCPC) at the census tract level was $11932. Poisson and Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR) models were used to analyzing the data. The GWPR model was more appropriate compared to the global model to capture the spatial heterogeneity. Findings indicate population under 16-year-old and over 60-year-old, the proportion of residents that use non-motorized transportation, household income, population density, household size and metropolitan indicator have a negative association with CCCPC. Alternatively, VMT, vehicle per capita, percent educated over 25-year-old, the proportion of minority races and individuals who use a motorcycle have a positive association with CCCPC. Findings are discussed in line with road safety literature.
Analysis of Driver Injury Severity in Single-Vehicle Roadway Departure Crashes on Curved Rural Segments with a Mixed Logit Approach
Mouyid Islam, University of South FloridaShow Abstract
Anurag Pande, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Roadway departure crashes are considered as a core emphasis area in Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP) at state and national level because they account for considerable fatalities and serious injuries on the roadway system. The injury severity issue for these crashes is even more pronounced on the rural roadways. The focus of this study to identify and quantify the factors leading to single-vehicle roadway departure crashes on rural curved segments in Minnesota. The crash data is extracted from the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) from 2010 to 2014. This study applies a mixed logit approach to model driver injury severity to account for possible unobserved heterogeneity in the data resulting from driver, roadway, traffic, and/or environment conditions. This analysis adds value to the existing literature since this approach is potentially applicable as part of a safety programming process implemented by agencies. The model results indicate that there is a complex interaction of driver characteristics and actions (gender, age, and unsafe speed), roadway and traffic characteristics (2-lane undivided road and traffic volume), environmental conditions (adverse weather, cloudy weather, lighting and surface condition), crash event (rollover), and vehicle characteristics (vehicle type – sport utility vehicle). A brief discussion on how this approach and results may help stakeholders encompassing the policymakers, safety professionals, and engineers in the safety planning process is provided. Keywords: Single-vehicle crashes; HSIS; Roadway Departure Crashes; Curved segment; Rural Highways; Injury severity; Mixed logit model.
Risk of Road Injury According to Home Location: The Influence of Population Density, Car Use, and Distance Travelled (Montreal, Canada)
Jillian Strauss, Ecole Polytechnique de MontrealShow Abstract
Felix Lamothe, Universite de Montreal
Patrick Morency, Montréal Public Health Department
Catherine Morency, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal
Population density is known to be associated with road safety but, within metropolitan areas, there is some confusion in previous studies which use population at the crash location instead of at the home location of the injured people. This study aims to estimate the road injury risk associated with home location in Montreal (Canada), using a representative survey of a typical weekday of travel. The likelihood of car occupant, bus occupant and pedestrian injury was estimated for each intersection, road segment and highway. Injury risk was then calculated for each trip, as a function of the specific route taken (e.g. intersections crossed) and summed for each individual to obtain an individual risk of injury over the day. The 107 municipalities of Montreal were classified into quintiles according to net population density. Regression models were developed to further explore the independent effect of density at home location and of individual travel behaviour. Considering all modes, the injury rate per capita is 2.5 times greater for people living in the least dense sector than for people living in the densest sector. The regression models show that higher household density near the home location is associated with a reduced risk of injury. However, including car use, distance travelled and number of intersections crossed greatly reduces the estimated effect of population density. The results clearly show an inverse relationship between population density at home location and the risk of road injury. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms, car use and distance travelled, have been made explicit.
Evaluation of Injury Severity Updates in California Collision Data
John Bigham, RoadSafe GIS, Inc.Show Abstract
Sang Hyouk Oum, University of California, Berkeley
Fatal or injury collisions in California must be reported to the California Highway Patrol (CHP) for inclusion in the Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System (SWITRS). After records have been entered into SWITRS they are made publicly available and are accessible through the CHP’s report and data retrieval site called I-SWITRS. However, records accessed in SWITRS are considered provisional and can be updated several years after initial entry. This includes the injury severity level of collisions. If the collision data was accessed prior to an injury severity update, the agency retrieving the data may unknowingly be working with an outdated version. This can have an impact on government agencies use of data driven safety analyses to apply for safety improvement funding in order to achieve key safety goals in reducing fatal and serious injury collisions. This paper evaluated the frequency and level of injury severity changes for severe injury and fatal collisions that occurred in 2016 and which were retrieved at four different times between March 2017 and June 2018. In total, 94 injury collisions were upgraded to fatal collisions (2.653%) and 2 fatal collisions were downgraded to severe injury collisions (0.056%) out of the 3,543 total fatal collisions that occurred in 2016. The authors concluded that government agencies need to perform regular checks of their data to ensure that fatal and severe injury collisions are properly accounted for to maximize their ability to achieve safety performance targets.
Do Higher Fuel Prices Help Reduce Road Traffic Accidents?
Nadia Naqvi, Loughborough UniversityShow Abstract
Mohammed Quddus, Loughborough University
Marcus Enoch, Loughborough University
Road traffic accidents have decreased in most developed nations over the last decade. This has been attributed to improvement in vehicle and road design, medical technology as well as driver education and training. Recent evidence however indicates that fuel price changes have a significant impact on road traffic accidents through other mediating factors such as more fuel-efficient driving behaviours, less car travel through changing modes and speed reduction on high-speed roads. However, there is a lack of evidence to support the effects of changes in fuel prices on road traffic accidents in the UK which is the focus of this paper. For this purpose, weekly time series of fuel prices (between 2005-2015) have been used to study the effects on road traffic accidents using Prais-Winsten model of first order autoregressive (AR1) and the Box and Jenkins seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models (SARIMA). This study is designed to quantify the effects of fuel price on road traffic accidents frequency through changes and adjustments in travel behaviour. The findings provide the evidence that the relationship between fuel prices and fatal road accident is negative, with every 1% increase in fuel price there is a 0.4% reduction in the fatal road traffic accidents frequency. However, with recent government plans to ban petrol and diesel vehicles by 2040, wiping away benefits from high fuel prices through reducing fatal accidents, to gain environmental benefits, transport policy makers need reviewing their policy to reduce road accident externality in the absence of road fuel prices.
Humps, Circles, and Chicanes: Policy Transfer of 20 MPH Zones from London to New York City
Jonas Hagen, Columbia UniversityShow Abstract
New York City’s Neighborhood Slow Zones program, the first systematic area-wide traffic calming program in a major US city, was inspired by London’s Slow Zones. However, while London’s zones were associated with statistically significant reductions in traffic casualties, the zones in New York were not. In this paper, I use a policy transfer framework to determine if street design contributed to the insignificant traffic safety impacts of area-wide traffic calming in New York. I use both quantitative and qualitative data on the traffic calming devices implemented in 20-mph zones in both cities. While speed humps were the only device used to slow traffic in New York City, London’s 20-mph zones used a much broader range of traffic calming devices. Further, the quantity of traffic calming devices was much higher in London. The large difference in the street designs used in 20-mph zones in each city suggests that New York’s more skeletal version of area-wide traffic calming contributed to the disappointing results in that city. Barriers to a more complete transfer of street designs for 20-mph zones include the cost of, and public opposition to, more robust traffic calming measures, in addition to the emergence of other traffic safety priorities in New York. Despite the NSZ program’s shortcomings, I argue that the program was a partial success.
High Injury Networks: Why, When, and How to Use Them: A Case Study
Frank Proulx, Toole Design Group, LLCShow Abstract
Rebecca Lauren Sanders, Arizona State University
Cities across the United States have adopted Vision Zero policies in recent years, commiting themselves to eliminating fatal and severe traffic injuries. One of the key aspects of most Vision Zero plans is a focus on data-driven solutions, and a common tool in these dicussions is the High Injury Network (HIN). The HIN is one way to identify the highest priority locations to focus action on. The primary strength of the HIN over other techniques is its relative simplicity – it provides a compelling narrative device for drawing attention to the urgency of traffic safety issues at particular locations. In this paper, we present an overview of the state of knowledge on the HIN concept. Following that overview, we dicuss the various considerations and decisions that must be made in the development of a HIN through the case study of the Vision Zero Pedestrian HIN for the City of Oakland, CA. Various iterations of the HIN are shown to demonstrate how these decisions can impact the structure of the network. The paper concludes with some general recommendations on pursuing this line of analysis and ways that the results can be used in Vision Zero planning processes.
A Novel Approach for Identifying, Diagnosing, and Treating Active Transportation Safety Issues
Ahmed Osama Amer, Ain Shams UniversityShow Abstract
Tarek Sayed, University of British Columbia
There has been an increasing interest in active transportation due to its many health, environmental, and economical benefits. However, active commuters are subjected to an elevated level of severe crashes’ risk, which can be a deterrent to many road users to shift to active transportation. Therefore, there is a need for developing systematic approaches to improve the safety of active commuters. This paper presents a new approach for identifying, diagnosing and remedying active transportation safety issues. The approach is demonstrated through a case study of City of Vancouver’s 134 traffic analysis zones (TAZs). A comprehensive GIS data related to traffic exposure, socio-economics, land use, built environment, street network, and cyclist and pedestrian networks was used in the analysis. A multivariate full-Bayesian spatial mixed crash model (CM) was developed incorporating cyclist and pedestrian crashes as well as motorized and non-motorized traffic exposure measures. The CM was used to identify the top 10% active transportation crash-prone zones (CPZs) and safe zones (SZs) using the novel Mahalanobis Distance method. CPZs were found clustered in the downtown. Sixteen trigger variables were statistically investigated for each CPZ and SZ. Lastly, remedies, related to land use, traffic demand, and traffic supply management, were proposed using the trigger variable analysis and literature consultation.
Evaluating Research on Data Linkage to Assess Underreporting of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Injury in Police Crash Data
Sarah Doggett, University of California, BerkeleyShow Abstract
David Ragland, Safe Transportation Research and Education Center
Grace Felschundneff, Safe Transportation Research and Education Center
Traffic safety decisions are based predominantly on information from police collision reports. However, a number of studies suggest that such reports tend to underrepresent bicycle and pedestrian collisions. Underreporting could lead to inaccurate evaluation of crash rates and may under- or overestimate the effects of road safety countermeasures. This review examined ten studies that used data linkage to explore potential underreporting of pedestrian and/or bicyclist injury in police collision reports. Due to variations in definitions of reporting level, periods of study, and study locations, it was difficult to directly compare the studies. Even among the six studies using the hospital link definition, estimates of reporting levels ranged from 44 to 75 percent for pedestrian crashes, and from 7 to 46 percent for bicycle crashes, suggesting a severe underreporting problem. However, few of the studies provided estimates of the error around their reporting level estimates, and as a result, it is difficult to determine the true level of underreporting. It may be that bicycle and pedestrian crashes appear in both police and hospital datasets but are less likely to be linked. Due to linkage error, link rate can only be used to estimate reporting level. Without the variance of that estimate, the effect of underreporting on traffic safety analyses cannot be accurately determined. Future studies should include estimates of the error present in their data linkage process for greater accuracy of the underreporting in police data. Datasets should be designed for easier linkage with hospital data and other datasets.
Geospatial Statistical Analysis of Road Traffic Accidents and Mortality
Francesco Rouhana, University of Notre DameShow Abstract
Dima Jawad, University of Notre Dame, Louaize
Maya Atieh, University of Notre Dame, Louaize
According to the World Health Organization, global road fatalities remain at an alarming rate of 1.25 million fatalities per year besides 50 million injuries with 90% of these fatalities happening in developing countries. Hence, road safety has moved up to the top of priorities to be tackled. Identifying high-risk road segments is one of the indispensable steps in establishing any road safety program. Operational road infrastructure interventions can be implemented to address road safety problems. These interventions aim at reducing the probability of a crash. Particular interventions can almost abolish death and serious injury while others provide more limited improvements. In this paper, an approach is put forward for identifying high-risk road segments taking into consideration the existing road crashes records in the context of developing countries where poor crash-related data can be a major impediment in developing any pressing road safety program. The proposed approach is implemented in the country of Lebanon after identifying the most critical governorate in terms of road fatalities.The available road crashes data are analyzed through detecting accident hot spots using complex spatial analysis in Geographic Information System based on statistics by Moran’s I for Spatial Autocorrelation, Getis-Ord Gi* for Hot Spot, Clusters and Outliers analysis, and High/Low Clustering analysis. The main objective of hot spots and risk evaluation of road network is to distinguish high-risk road segments and aid in identifying cost-effective mitigation measures that can be implemented to enhance the safety programs in abating the index of mortality due to road accidents.
Crash Costs in Practice
Timothy Harmon, VHBShow Abstract
Frank Gross, VHB
Geni Bahar, NAVIGATS Inc.
ABSTRACT Crash costs represent a monetary estimate of the impacts of highway crashes. Crash costs are used in all stages of the project development process and allow analysts to monetize changes in highway safety performance. Analysts use crash costs in estimating the return on investment for projects that affect road user safety. To assure safety analyses are accurate, crash cost values should match the units, year, and region to which they are applied. States independently select, modify, and apply their own crash costs in safety analysis. Based on a questionnaire sent to Federal Highway Administration Division Offices, states use widely varied crash costs from three major sources and apply them in different ways. For example, crash cost values applied to fatal crashes in safety analysis varied from $190,200 to $10,100,000, which reflects different cost components, estimation methods, weighting, injury scales, analysis year, and units. The questionnaire also indicated that crash costs are not always applied correctly in analysis, likely stemming from a lack of documentation on the topic. This paper examines the crash cost practices across state Departments of Transportation and formalizes calculations to adjust and transform crash costs for analysis. The methods presented in this paper can help agencies improve analysis accuracy, completeness, and consistency when applying crash costs in the safety management process. Keywords: Crash Costs, Safety Management, Economic Analysis, Safety Benefit
Using Causal Loop Diagrams to Identify and Represent the Factors That Contribute to Road Trauma
Paul Salmon, University of the Sunshine CoastShow Abstract
Roderick McClure, University of New England
Gemma J. M Read, University of the Sunshine Coast
Adam Hulme, University of the Sunshine Coast
Jason Thompson, University of Melbourne
Scott McLean, University of the Sunshine Coast
Research is beginning to show the merits of considering the broader road transport system when attempting to understand and prevent road trauma. As a result, questions have been raised regarding the knowledge base around crash causation and drivers’ engagement in behaviors that are known to lead to road crashes. This study involved the use of causal loop diagrams to identify and represent the network of factors underpinning drivers’ engagement in the behaviors that are known to lead to crashes and trauma: drink and drug driving, driving while distracted, driving while fatigued, speeding, and failure to wear a seatbelt. CLDs were developed initially by the research team and were subsequently reviewed and refined during a road safety subject matter expert workshop. The causal loop diagrams show that there are a range of interacting factors that influence drivers’ engagement in the fatal five behaviors. Importantly the analyses reveal that there are a series of wider societal and public health issues that will continue to push adverse driver behaviors regardless of road safety interventions. These include alcohol and illegal and legal drug addiction, an increasing societal pressure to remain connected, time poor lifestyles and work pressures. It is concluded an integrated public health approach, incorporating better collaboration between public health and road safety stakeholders, is required. In particular, the findings indicate that road safety interventions should move beyond enforcement, education and engineering to encompass a broader focus on societal and public health issues.
An Investigation of Relationship Between the U.S. Road Assessment Program Star Rating and Crash Experience
Niloo Parvinashtiani, Institute of Transportation EngineersShow Abstract
Omar Smadi, Iowa State University
Over the recent decades, the International Road Assessment Program (iRAP) has been widely used as a systemic safety management tool. iRAP uses the risk-based non-crash measure of Road Protection Score (RPS) for assessing the level of safety of the roads on a 1 to 5 Star Rating scale. Given that few published studies exist in this area, one of the most significant current research needs is the validation of the relationship between the crashes and Star Ratings. Moreover, the previous validation studies have been mostly limited only to the descriptive comparison of crash rate and Star Rating averages and have failed to establish a comprehensive statistical relationship. In order to investigate such a relationship, this study develops a crash prediction model using a sample of two lane rural roads in North Carolina. The crash frequency was estimated as a function of Road Protection Score and Annual Average Daily Traffic using a negative binomial model. The results of this study showed that the crash frequency consistently increases with Road Protection Score. The developed safety performance function showed that moving from a 3-star road to a 2-star road would result in 47% more crashes. These findings confirm that Star Rating is a valid risk measure for crash frequency on two lane rural roads. Keywords: iRAP, Systemic Safety, Safety Performance Function, Validation, Data, Star Rating
MIRE Safety Data Integration Using Roadway Data Extraction Tool
Edgar Kraus, Texas A&M Transportation InstituteShow Abstract
Robert Pollack, Office of Safety Federal Highway Administration
The Model Inventory of Roadway Elements (MIRE) is a guideline of roadway and traffic data elements developed and published by FHWA to help state and local transportation agencies with the development of a comprehensive roadway data inventory useful for safety data analysis. Beginning with MIRE 1.0, FHWA developed a subset of MIRE data elements called the fundamental data elements (MIRE FDEs) as required by MAP-21 and the FAST Act. States are required to have access to the MIRE FDEs on all public roads by September 30, 2026. This paper summarizes the results of two pilot implementation projects at the Washington State DOT and the Missouri DOT conducted by the FHWA Roadway Data Extraction Technical Assistance Program (RDETAP). The focus of the projects was the implementation of a Roadway Data Extraction (RDE) Tool to extract and integrate roadway data from existing DOT and local transportation sources. Both pilot implementation projects resulted in an improvement of each DOT’s roadway dataset towards expansion of current roadway inventory databases and improving compliance with the federal FDE requirement. The paper documents how the RDE Tool was adapted to meet the needs of the agencies participating in the pilots, and summarizes several lessons learned that will be of interest to transportation agencies involved with improving roadway data inventories through data extraction, sharing, and integration.