Application of Envision, INVEST, and GreenLITES Sustainability Rating Systems to Multiple Transportation Projects
Oluwatobi Oluwalaiye, Colorado State UniversityShow Abstract
Mehmet Ozbek, Colorado State University
To date, several transportation sustainability rating systems (TSRS) have been developed to measure and promote sustainability. However, studies show that these TSRS have not been developed with a consistent sustainability scope. This raises the question of the consistency of these TSRS in measuring sustainability of transportation projects. This study assesses how three prominent TSRS rate the sustainability performance of transportation projects with the goal of determining if a consistency exists in the way these three TSRS measure sustainability. The TSRS that are in the scope of this study are: (i) Envision – a third-party rating system, (ii) INVEST – a self-assessed rating system and, (iii) GreenLITES – a self-assessed rating system developed in-house by the New York State Department of Transportation for internal use. These three TSRS are applied to five transportation projects. The results show that these three rating tools assess and reward sustainability practices differently. Additionally, results suggest that it may be easier for a project to get awarded in GreenLITES compared to the other two TSRS. Notwithstanding all of the above, a consistency was noted in all three rating systems in the Quality of Life/Social performance of projects. This study helps inform stakeholders in the transportation industry (i.e., departments of transportation, developers, contractors, and the public) on how transportation projects perform when run through each of these rating systems. This will help stakeholders make informed decisions with respect to choosing one (or more) TSRS to assess their projects with and evaluating the results obtained from such TSRS.
The Nirvana Terms of Transportation: What Do They Really Mean, How Do They Relate to One Another, and What Is Their Practical Utility in Transportation Planning?
Elyse Lewis, University of WashingtonShow Abstract
Don MacKenzie, University of Washington
Within the transportation field there exist a collection of nirvana terms; terms such as equity, accessibility, quality of life, and well-being are buzz words used by a wide variety of stakeholders to express a desire to implement socially sustainable transportation systems. However, while these are commonly held interests supported by social policies and initiatives such as the Sustainable Development Goals, there is widespread misunderstanding and subsequent misuse of these concepts. This paper first draws on expertise from a variety of fields outside of transportation to define these terms, how they relate to one another, and how they can be utilized within the transportation sector. We ultimately argue that individual-level, stated preference data is required to provide a theoretically-sound measure of social sustainability, and that collecting this data qualitative data through public participatory approaches is both necessary from a normative standpoint and worth the effort from a cost-effective standpoint. Finally, an exploratory analysis of surveys collected by the Latin American Development Bank (CAF) in 2009 and 2011 is performed to identify links between public transportation and overall life satisfaction variables.
Innovation in Municipal Traffic Impact Assessment Approaches: A Case Study in North Carolina
Tabitha S Combs, University of North Carolina, Chapel HillShow Abstract
Noreen McDonald, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
William Leimenstoll, University of North Carolina
Ruth Steiner, University of Florida
Municipalities and states across the US frequently use TIA (traffic impact assessment) in order to estimate how much additional automobile traffic will be generated by new developments, and determine what roadway capacity improvements developers are required to provide to ensure concomitant traffic congestion does not surpass accepted levels. The conventional approach to TIA has come under fire in recent years, as its emphasis on improving traffic flow and reducing congestion conflicts with the growing movement for more compact, livable, and walkable urban spaces and increasing reliance on non-car travel modes. Researchers and professional organizations have been working to develop new approaches to TIA that better account for contemporary urban travel patterns and that better align with local efforts to support more sustainable development patterns. In this paper, we present findings from an exploratory study of the state-of-the-practice of traffic impact assessment and the adoption of innovative TIA practices in the US state of North Carolina. Using semi-structured interviews of staff involved in the development approval process in 16 medium and large NC municipalities, we captured and content-analyzed qualitative data on how each municipality handles the traffic impacts of new developments, any innovative approaches the municipality has adopted that represent a departure from the conventional TIA methods, and enablers or and/or barriers to adoption of innovation. Overall, we find that NC municipalities largely follow the conventional approach to TIA, although some locations have modified this approach with the intent of improving alignment between development patterns and livability goals.
Parallel Decision-Making Processes: A Bivariate Ordered Probit, Stage-of-Change Approach to Model the Adoption of Walking, Cycling, and Bikesharing
Alec Biehl, Northwestern UniversityShow Abstract
Maher Said, Northwestern University
Amanda Stathopoulos, Northwestern University
Active mobility, traditionally referring to walking and cycling modes, offers an array of physical, emotional, and social well-being benefits. However, with the proliferation of the sharing economy, new nonmotorized means of transport are entering the fold and competing with other mobility service innovations for travelers to choose among. The purpose of this research study is to connect stage-of-change analysis, which originates from the health behavior sciences, with sustainable (active) travel adoption in a joint modeling framework. The consideration of both univariate and bivariate ordered probit models provides well-needed insights into individuals’ readiness for change as a function of personal and psychosocial factors. This affords a comparative analysis of similar modes and, as revealed by model error correlations when varying the number of measured stages, not only reveals unique determinants but also dependence among travel behavior change processes. Notably, there is strong evidence of an association between walking and cycling, whereas other joint model effects were less evident.
Transit Agencies and TNCs: Competition, Cooperation, and the Quest for Integrated Mobility
Jason Neudorf, WSPShow Abstract
Timothy Rosenberger, WSP
Jim Gough, WSP
The objective of this paper is to explore how Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) are affecting transit agencies and to outline emerging TNC policy strategies to enhance mobility. The paper begins by reviewing the emerging role of TNCs in the urban transportation system and describing their relationship to transit systems. A framework of goals that can be used to evaluate potential policy strategies is introduced, and TNC strategies that have recently been implemented in Canada and the US are summarized. To illustrate that there is a need for more advanced strategies to integrate TNCs into the transportation system, we analyze ridership data from a mid-size transit agency in Waterloo Region, Ontario. We present several concepts for more advanced strategies that could be implemented in the future and outline areas for further research. Our key findings include: the cost to deliver very low utilization transit trips is comparable to the cost associated with TNC trips; the relative cost of TNC trips is likely to decrease in the future; policies that have been implemented to date meet some, but not all, mobility objectives; additional strategies that address all stated mobility objectives are available and could be piloted.
Developing Comparative Agent-Based Model Scenarios to Evaluate Emerging Transportation Systems
Mustafa Lokhandwala, Purdue UniversityShow Abstract
Hua Cai, Purdue University
Technological advancements in automobiles and information and communication technologies have been advancing transportation systems at a rapid pace. Researchers have been able to model these emerging transportation systems using agent-based modeling to study their impacts and inform decision making. However, these agent-based models have a large number of continuous and discrete input parameters, thus making it difficult to find equivalent scenarios to compare the impact of different system design or agent behaviors on a common ground. This paper proposes a method based on response surface methodology to identify such comparable scenarios. We then proceed to demonstrate this method on an agent-based model which simulates a shared autonomous electric vehicle system. Using the proposed method, we were then able to identify important input parameters in our model and also find the relationships between the input parameters and the other key performance indicators of the model that can generate comparable scenarios, enabling the comparison of the key factors on system performance.
Promoting Multimodality Through Rewards
Athena Tsirimpa, University of the AegeanShow Abstract
Amalia Polydoropoulou, University of the Aegean
Ioanna Pagoni, University of the Aegean
Ioannis Tsouros, University of the Aegean
This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of reward-based schemes on altering traveller’s decision making towards sustainable and emerging multimodal transportation. For this purpose, a web-based questionnaire survey is conducted in several countries across Europe within which suitable stated preference (SP) experiments are designed. Apart from the traditional multimodal attributes, such as travel time and travel cost, each SP experiment is supplemented by an attribute which represents a reward-based scheme, including monetary rewards, credits and the provision of added value services. A mixed logit model is estimated where the individual’s utility is linearly dependent on the respondent’s socio-demographics and the attributes of the different multimodal alternatives. Our analysis indicates that, overall, the reward-based incentives could slightly contribute to the promotion of sustainable and emerging transport services. Our model estimates indicate that offering credits and monetary rewards, as well as the provision of added value services are effective ways in altering travellers’ behavior. In particular, it is found that individuals are more likely to use park and ride and car-sharing in the presence of monetary rewards, while the use of “Public transport with bike-sharing” and “Public transport with walking” are positively affected in the presence of credits and added value service respectively.