This poster session contains presentations on various congestion pricing and managed lane projects and research studies. Specifically, these posters focus on subtopics related to integrating transit and transportation demand management (TDM), as well as addressing issues about planning, policy, and public acceptance.
All Links Based E-Hailing Service Surcharge Mechanism and Performance Estimation
Qixing Wang, University of ConnecticutShow Abstract
Nicholas Lownes, University of Connecticut
E-hailing services, in which riders request the ride from their mobile device, have rapidly developed into a viable transportation alternative for many travelers. This technology has changed the set of choices for travelers and has shifted travel patterns, most significantly from the traditional taxi services. However, several issues have arisen during this expansion. In this paper an economical approach is proposed which considers both the effects of the travelers’ route choices and travel demand patterns. In this approach, we assume that all links can be surcharged for those using e-haling services, and a heuristic approach is applied to address this computationally difficult problem. A cost inverse function is introduced to update the demand changes along paths with different rates of E-haling surcharges. The method is demonstrated on a small example network and then applied to the Sioux Falls, and Anaheim network. The method is demonstrated on a small example network and then applied to the middle size Sioux Falls, SD network and large scale city network of Anaheim, CA. Results indicate that an optimal price could efficiently reduce e-hailing service demand during the congestion hours and improve the transportation system performance to System Optimal (SO) level.
Incentives for the Reduction of Peak-Hour Traffic Congestion: Models, Costs, and Optimal Transport
Chinmoy Mandayam, GoogleShow Abstract
Balaji Prabhakar, Stanford University
This paper studies the feasibility of using incentives to shift commuters' travel times to mitigate peak-hour traffic congestion. The cost of congestion is assumed to be proportional to the total extra time vehicles spend on the highway due to congestion. A fluid model of traffic flow is used to analyze this congestion. The cost of shifting start times is also proportional to the amount of time shifted. We show that both these costs can be expressed in terms of the Wasserstein distance (also known as the earth mover's distance) between measures on the real line. This fact is used to formulate a linear optimization problem for determining the optimal way to shift users from peak to off-peak hours using incentives so that total costs are lowered. A simple example shows that the cost reduction with complete participation in the incentive scheme can be more than 55%.
Mode Shift Impacts of Optimal Time-Dependent Congestion Pricing in Large Networks: A Simulation-Based Case Study in the Greater Toronto Area
MD Sami Hasnine, University of TorontoShow Abstract
Aya Aboudina, University of Toronto
Baher Abdulhai, University of Toronto
Khandker Nurul Habib, University of Toronto
This paper presents a case study on commuter’s mode, departure time, and route choice responses to optimized tolling in the Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The study integrates a toll optimization module into a testbed of hybrid departure time choice, dynamic traffic assignment simulation model, and random utility maximization (RUM) based mode choice model. An iterative optimization algorithm is used to generate optimal tolling structure which explicitly considers heterogeneous user preferences through econometric departure time choice model. The mode choice component is exogenously retrofitted in an integrated departure time choice and operational dynamic traffic assignment simulation environment to capture individual mode choice behaviour in response to variable congestion pricing. The integrated model results show that individuals are more likely to switch driving routes and departure times than commuting modes when making tradeoffs between schedule delay cost, travel time cost, and toll cost. It is found that the optimal toll scenario improves the network-wide travel time. The modelling framework presented in this study can test a wide range of policy scenarios including time-variable tolling of congested highways, and high occupancy toll lanes. While the integrated framework presented here is tested at a large scale on the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), we believe the approach can be applied to large-scale networks globally where the objective is seeking the best network-wide spatial and temporal traffic distribution.
Receptiveness to Strategies That Promote Walk, Bicycle, and Bus Commuting to an Urban University
Josie L Willman, University of Wisconsin, MilwaukeeShow Abstract
Robert Schneider, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Many strategies have been proposed to increase sustainable commuting to urban universities, but little is known about who might be the most receptive to particular strategies. Using the Fall 2017 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM) Campus Travel Survey, we identified respondents’ top three strategies for increasing walk, bicycle, and bus commuting. Then we developed binomial logistic regression models to find sociodemographic, commute trip, and commuter background characteristics associated with receptiveness to the top strategies for each mode. Being a student, being female, having no children, having a household income below $50,000, commuting to UWM by bicycle, and living in a country outside of the US before arriving at UWM were associated with higher receptiveness to many of the top sustainable commuting strategies. Being in an older age group and having two or more household automobiles were associated with lower receptiveness. Factors related to receptiveness also varied by strategy. Our findings recommend gathering constructive suggestions from groups with key sociodemographic and commute characteristics and tailoring encouragement messages and marketing to these groups. Ultimately, our study results may help increase sustainable commuting to urban universities.
Reverse Congestion Pricing: Private-Sector Support for a Novel Way to Change Modes
Steve Marshal, City of BellevueShow Abstract
Richard Mudge, Compass Transportation and Technology, Inc.
Commute Pool is a flexible autonomous carpool program organized by Bellevue Washington with support from a group of public and private entities. The program will use price changes (lower costs and better service) to encourage commuters to switch from single occupancy vehicles to a flexible car pool system. This is a Public Private Partnership with financial and organizational support from two dozen firms (Including Boeing, T-Mobile, and Amazon). The program is focused on residents of relatively low-cost housing along a major corridor (I-405).
Is Transit Ridership Really Decreasing?: How Much Do We Know About Performances of Transit Routes Operated in Managed Lanes Facilities
Md Sakoat Hossan, CDM SmithShow Abstract
Fatema Hoque Farzana, Florida International University
There has been a recent speculation that transit ridership has begun to decline after a decent growth over the past two decades (between 1995 and 2015). Ridership report of American Public Transportation Association (APTA) also supports the conjecture (i.e. 3% declined in general). Therefore, it is not surprising that researchers will question the ridership trends of public transit, particularly with the emergence of ride sharing (i.e. Uber, Lyft) options as they are perceived to take away passengers from public transit.
However, it would be misleading to ascribe the declined ridership trend to all public transit agencies, irrespective of the urban sprawl, demographics, geography, available alternatives, operating facility etc. There are some agencies who experienced increase in ridership as well. For instance, Miami-Dade Transit and Broward County Transit agencies reported ridership increase in several routes, particularly in those where transit is operated in the managed lanes facility.
This study will focus on the performances of public transit (in terms of ridership), exclusively for those that are operated in managed lanes facility and will shed lights on the contributing factors behind their success/failure.
Highway 169 MnPASS and Bus Rapid Transit Study
Paul Morris, SRF Consulting Group, Inc.Show Abstract
Kenneth Buckeye, Minnesota Department of Transportation
The Highway 169 Mobility Study was a first-of-a-kind effort to evaluate MnPASS high-occupancy/toll (HOT) express lanes and highway bus rapid transit (hBRT) in the same corridor in the Twin Cities metro area. Previous planning efforts identified both MnPASS and hBRT potential for the corridor, however physical constraints posed a challenge to implementation of both features.
Despite heavy congestion, this corridor serves some of Minnesota’s premier Fortune 500 companies like United Health and General Mills, as well as several distribution centers for Amazon, Shutterfly, and more. In the coming decades it will face further growth pressures as urban and suburban communities look to add denser infill and redevelopment. Finding a feasible solution to provide additional modes and mobility options is critical to the long-range vision for the Twin Cities’ regional transportation system.
Interstate 476 Part-Time Shoulder Use Operational Effects Economic Analysis
Sean Coffey, IH EngineersShow Abstract
Seri Park, Villanova University
Part-Time Shoulder Use (PTSU) has been found in numerous studies to have an operational benefit similar to widening a roadway though only during specific congested times of the day. With less widening required for PTSU, PTSU could be a more sustainable alternative to widening a roadway for additional capacity. Using results from an operational analysis of Interstate 476 (I-476) in southeast Pennsylvania, the economic effects of the improved operational performance were quantified to examine the viability of PTSU on I-476. The operational performance effects were assessed using a Vissim model during the morning commuting periods. Based on regional user costs, the driver savings in travel time spent on I-476 throughout the year during the morning commuting period were estimated to be up to $10 million per year. The viability of PTSU and widening I-476 were compared using a benefit-cost (B/C) analysis. There are a variety of possible construction costs that impact both the widening of I-476 and PTSU. The B/C ratio ranges calculated for PTSU was 1.03 to 4.05, and for widening I-476, 0.73 to 2.23 respectively when accounting for the variations in construction costs. Overall, due to the reduced construction costs related to implementing PTSU, PTSU provides a more economically sound and sustainable option for improving the operational performance of I-476.
Pricing Intervention Impact: Economic and Quantitative Analysis of Toll User Elasticities for the I-680 South Express Lanes in Contra Costa County, San Francisco Bay Area, California
Aly ElSalmi, WSPShow Abstract
Carlos Campo, WSP
I – 680 South Express Lanes in Contra Costa County, San Francisco Bay Area, CA
The I-680 South Express Lanes (EL) program went online in late 2017, with the objective of managing increasing congestion levels within the facility. It represents the first piece of the Bay Area Infrastructure Financing Authority (BAIFA)’s eventual 270-mile EL network.
We intend to develop a comprehensive analysis framework to estimate economic variables (e.g., toll road user price elasticities and willingness-to-pay) from existing traffic, trip and toll datasets, which could be applied to many road pricing applications. That framework will be further used to facilitate econometric analysis of traffic and transaction data.
Estimating the Value of Travel Time and Value of Reliability for High Occupancy Toll and Express Tolled Lanes
Simona Babiceanu, University of VirginiaShow Abstract
T. Donna Chen, University of Virginia
In Northern Virginia interstate I-66 Inside-the- Beltway (East of I-495) is restricted during the AM peak period in the Eastbound direction and during the PM peak period in the Westbound direction to HOV2+ or toll-paying single occupancy vehicles (SOV) on all lanes with no available parallel un-tolled uninterrupted option. In the same region, interstates I-95 and I-495 have barrier separated ETLs (Express Tolled Lanes) and parallel general purpose lanes (GPLs) that can be used by anyone for free. All three are tolled dynamically using congestion pricing algorithms. This research presents a model for estimating the VOTT (Value of Travel Time) and VOR (Value of Reliability) that uses toll, travel time, signal timing, and posted speed limit information.
A Welfare Analysis of Various Road Capacity Expansion Options: The Case of North Tarrant Express Highway in Dallas–Fort Worth Area, Texas
Wooseok Do, McGill UniversityShow Abstract
Omid Rouhani, McGill University
Raymond Geddes, Cornell University
Arash Beheshtian, Cornell University
Ehsan Moradi, McGill University
In this study, we estimate social welfare impacts of implementing four road capacity expansion options (free capacity, high occupancy vehicle-HOV lane, high occupancy toll-HOT lane and toll road) on the North Tarrant Expressway (NTE) lanes in Dallas-Fort-Worth area, Texas. These options are the most-commonly-used choices to expand road capacity. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has analyzed all these options for one case study, especially on a large-scale network. To fill this gap, we provide detailed welfare impact comparisons considering travel time, general travel cost, energy consumption, and emissions on the NTE corridor and the network-wide level. We use a regional travel demand model equipped with toll choice modeling to determine traffic patterns and adopt Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) to calculate system-wide energy consumption and emissions.
Vision for Expressways in Large Metropolitan Areas: A Case Study of the Chicago Metropolitan Region
Thomas Murtha, Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning (CMAP)Show Abstract
Srikanth Panguluri, Jacobs
Athreya Sreenivasan, Jacobs
Jill Kramer, Jacobs
The Expressway System is a vital infrastructure asset providing the foundation for economic sustainability in large metropolitan areas. The operational and physical characteristics of the Expressway System in the Chicago Metropolitan area are causing ever-more unacceptable and unreliable travel conditions—undermining the region’s economic competitiveness and quality of life. Additionally, many portions of the system will require substantial replacement in the coming decades due to its’ advanced age. In conjunction with the need for replacement, global trends and emerging technologies are rapidly influencing our travel and transport patterns and the system is not equipped to handle these rapid changes. The long-standing infrastructure funding constraints, as well as policy and organizational barriers, have hindered our ability as a nation to advance needed transportation system investments. Developing a bold new vision for the Chicago area Expressway System offers an opportunity to build an innovative, multi-modal transportation system that sets the stage for enhanced mobility in the region for today and the future.
Revenue Maximization for High-Occupancy Toll Lanes: An Optimal Control Approach
Xuting Wang, University of California, IrvineShow Abstract
Wenlong Jin, University of California, Irvine
High-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes are managed lanes that combines high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes with congestion pricing strategies. Some possible objectives of operating HOT lanes include: (i) maintaining a certain Level-of-service (LOS) on HOT lanes; (ii) improving overall system performance; (iii) maximizing revenue for private sectors. Some agencies claimed that revenue maximization should generally coincide with the optimization of freeway performances. But this statement has not been carefully examined. In this study, we will use the optimal control theory to formulate and solve the revenue maximization problem when the freeway is congested. A point queue model (PQM) for traffic and a multinomial logit model (MNL) for lane group choice are two constraints for the problem. We will first provide the optimality conditions and then provide an iterative method to solve the control problem. We also present numerical examples to show how the method works. We compare the revenue and system performance with our previous study in the same simulation setups. The conclusions are as follows: if the total demand is slightly higher than capacity and the demand of HOVs is low, operators can maximize revenue and keep free-flow speed on the HOT lane at the same time; if the demand of HOVs is high, operators can design a pricing scheme that maximizes revenue while minimizing total travel delay.
Treasure Island Mobility Management Program: Congestion Management Toll Policy and Affordability Program Recommendation
Priyoti Ahmed, San Francisco County Transportation Authority (SFCTA)Show Abstract
Rachel Hiatt, San Francisco County Transportation Authority (SFCTA)
In July 2016, the Treasure Island Development Authority (TIDA) and Treasure Island Mobility Management Agency (TIMMA) Boards adopted select toll policies for a comprehensive, multimodal transportation program (TIMM Program) that will use parking and congestion toll user fees to fund significant expanded new transit and TDM benefits to a redevelopment area in the San Francisco Bay (Treasure Island). Since then, we have developed a robust Affordability Program and completed compressive Treasure Island toll policy including toll rate, hours of operation and exemptions. Later this year, TIMMA Boards will adopt the updated toll policy and Transportation Affordability Program strategies.
The toll policy recommends weekday (peak and off-peak) and weekend toll rate, hours of operation and toll exemptions. The toll will be applied to all vehicles on and off Treasure Island. This policy recommendation is based on extensive travel demand and financial modeling that captures various trade-offs (i.e., longer hours vs. higher peak toll) through full housing development. Our financial model is built to set the toll rate where the program can fund extensive transit services including a new bus route from East Bay and a ferry route from San Francisco and incentive travelers to take transit on/off Treasure Island to make sure that program is achieving 50% mode share. We worked with Bay Area Toll Authority staff and reconciled San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and Treasure Island toll rates and toll hours of operation. Treasure Island travelers will receive a 50% discount on TIMMA toll coming from East Bay to San Francisco, and pay half of Bay Bridge toll coming from San Francisco to Treasure Island.
In addition to congestion toll, we have developed multiple Transportation Affordability Program (TAP) strategies. All low-income Treasure Island residents will be eligible for this program. The goal of this program is to alleviate financial burden due to tolling and promote transit usage. The Boards called for current longtime residents to be given a free daily roundtrip toll equivalent for a limited transition period. We studied the cost of this benefit and determined that the program can offer this benefit to long-term residents for five years. Additionally, as part of the Affordability Program, we are providing one round trip toll credit for every 20 transit rides taken monthly. This toll credit can be cash amount or be used to pay for toll, and transit. Through this program, low income-residents will receive a 50% discount on Treasure Island specific transit pass and discounts on bikeshare and carshare.
Optimal Pricing for Departure Time Choice Problems with Unknown Preference and Demand: Trial-and-Error Approach
Toru Seo, University of TokyoShow Abstract
Yafeng Yin, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
The trial-and-error approach for congestion pricing finds the optimal toll based only on observable information (e.g., travel time, traffic state) without information on travelers' personal preferences that are often unobservable in practice (e.g., value of time, demand function). This feature makes the method practically useful by solving the well-known issue of ``information asymmetry'' between the system administrator and the consumers. This paper proposes trial-and-error schemes for the departure time choice problem (also known as the morning commute problem and Vickrey's bottleneck model). We theoretically show that our proposed schemes find the optimal toll in some standard departure time choice problems. Specifically, following cases are considered: fine toll for the homogeneous alpha-beta-gamma case, fine toll for the homogeneous case with a non-linear waiting time cost function or a non-linear schedule cost function, and coarse tolling for the homogeneous case with elastic demand. For the first problem, our scheme finds the exact optimal fine toll by one trial. For the second problem, our scheme finds the approximate optimal fine toll by one trial. For the last problem, our scheme converges to the social optimal state fairly quickly.
The Experiments of Distance-Based User Fees: Learnings from Pilot Projects
Camila Fonseca, University of MinnesotaShow Abstract
Patrick Haney, Humphrey School of Public Affairs
Frank Douma, Humphrey School of Public Affairs
Zhirong Zhao, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
The current transportation funding system based on fuel taxes is no longer sustainable, mainly because of the improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency and losses in purchasing power due to inflation. Distance-based user fees (DBUF) are a potential option to address the current transportation gap. Several states have conducted pilot projects, but DBUFs face public and administrative concerns that challenge their implementation. This paper reviews the experiences of seven DBUF pilot programs implemented in the U.S. with particular focus on the technology used for mileage tracking, the pricing schemes and a discussion of lessons learned from these experiments to reduce privacy and data security concerns, equity concerns, and high administrative costs. Pilot projects have offered a long range of technology options that vary in terms of intrusion, the ease of use, the precision to capture VMT, and the costs they impose to users and transportation authorities. They have also used revenue neutral fees that address increased vehicle fuel-efficiency but not the losses due to inflation. Promising strategies to address concerns include restrictions on the type of data to collect, the adoption of data security measures, the variety of technologies and payment options available to users, and the inclusion of private companies. While no pilot project has demonstrated an effective form of scaling DBUFs to a wider audience, this papers suggests that other strategies that are starting to be explored, such as partnering with other states, private operators or fleets, such as Mobility-as-a-Service providers, could provide new solutions to this issue.
The European Truck Tolling Policy: Analyzing Its Impact on Road Freight Transport and Modal Shift
Juan Gomez, Universidad Politecnica de MadridShow Abstract
Jose Manuel Vassallo, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid
During the last decades, the European Union authorities have promoted the implementation of a per-km charging system on heavy goods vehicles for the use of certain infrastructures. Following the "user pays" and the "polluter pays" principles, the "Eurovignette system" was firstly introduced in Switzerland in 2001 and subsequently extended to other European nations. Some previous contributions have conducted country-specific analysis on particular impacts observed after the implementation of the tolling policy, but a more global approach should quantify the overall impact of the Eurovignette system across countries. This paper explores the impact of the European truck tolling policy on road freight demand and modal share at a macro level. To that end, we develop a panel data methodology to analyze the evolution over time for different European countries. The results show that overall the implementation of the Eurovignette system has not evidenced to influence the evolution of road freight volume except very specific cases, and has not been effective in promoting modal shift to alternative modes.
From Congestion Tolls to Positive Incentives: Overcoming the Political Barrier
Galit Cohen-Blankshtain, Hebrew University of JerusalemShow Abstract
Hillel Bar-Gera, Ben Gurion University of the Negev
Yoram Shiftan, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
The viability of pricing as an effective policy tool to manage road congestion is consensual among most scholars. It is often assumed that the main way to implement road pricing in practice is by mandatory congestion tolls. Attempts to implement congestion tolls in practice were very sporadic, and often unsuccessful. Extensive research was devoted to congestion tolls, as well as alternative mandatory incentive schemes. Much less attention was given to the option of positive incentive mechanisms with voluntary participation. The goal of this paper is to offer a conceptual evaluation of the key differences between the two alternative road pricing mechanisms, namely: congestion tolls and positive incentives. We also present some results of a preliminary governmentally managed pilot with positive incentives that was recently initiated in Israel, named “Going Green.” Publicly available results from this pilot illustrate possible behavioral response to rewarding road pricing scheme and it’s potential to reduce traffic congestion. This pilot adds to the very limited empirical evidence available to date and supports the potential of such policy implementation. Based on the presented evaluation we believe that positive incentives have the potential to overcome the political barrier, as well as other barriers, and enable effective congestion management by road pricing.
Understanding Public Acceptability of Congestion Charging in Beijing
Yun Yuan, University of Wisconsin, MilwaukeeShow Abstract
Xiaoyu Cai, Chongqing Jiaotong University
Jie Zhang, Chongqing Jiaotong University
Xin Li, No Organization
Beijing is China’s national capital and home to an estimated 21.7 million people. The Beijing area currently experiences serious traffic congestion and extreme air pollution. To address these issues, Beijing’s metropolitan government is currently considering implementation of a congestion charging system that would require drivers to pay a fee to enter certain areas of the city. A Stated Preference survey of 5468 Beijing residents was conducted in May 2016 to obtain information about attitudes toward congestion charging. A Multinomial Logit (MNL) model was performed to identify relationships between resident characteristics and their support, neutrality, or opposition to congestion charging. The results indicate that skepticism about the traffic and air quality benefits of congestion charging and insufficient information about how the system will operate are significant impediments to public acceptance. Beijing residents would also like more information about how the congestion charging revenue will be used. The data shows strong relationships between resident characteristics and support or opposition. The middle-income car drivers are likely to be opposed while high income car drivers were quite supportive of congestion charging. Relationships between the monetary amount of the charge and personal attitudes appear to be complicated and require further investigation. Preliminary information suggests that people in the high-income group and those who use transit, bike, or walk appear to support relatively high fees, while middle-income drivers want the fee to be low. Thus, while a low fee could increase public acceptance of the system, it might also diminish its effectiveness.