Understanding Young Drivers’ Awareness of Traffic Rules in Qatar Based on Licensing Related Training and Driving Experience
Khaled Shaaban, Qatar UniversityShow Abstract
An acceptable level of knowledge of traffic rules is needed for any driver to drive on public roads. This knowledge is typically acquired at a younger age during the process of attaining a driver's license. To investigate the level of knowledge among young drivers and where it could be boosted, a questionnaire survey that covered questions related to the traffic law, fines, traffic signs, and different driving situations was conducted in Qatar to assess their knowledge level. The participants revealed an acceptable level of knowledge in general, measured in terms of percentage of correct responses. The participants showed an above-average level of knowledge of traffic signs, an acceptable level of knowledge in questions related to handling different driving situations, but they lacked knowledge of questions related to fines. The study recommends different solutions and provides possible guidance for the development of future policies in Qatar.
Risk Perception of Cell Phone Users While Driving Among Youth in Qatar
Suliman A. Gargoum, University of AlbertaShow Abstract
Khaled Shaaban, Qatar University
Karim El-Basyouny, University of Alberta
Cell phone distracted driving, which has grown in recent years due to the introduction of smart phones, is a significant safety problem all around the world. To address this problem, factors impacting the level of cell phone usage among drivers must be identified and their impacts on safety must be analyzed. To that end, this study uses data collected through a detailed questionnaire of young drivers in Qatar to assess potential correlations between a driver’s demographic background, their level of cell phone usage while driving, their perception of risk, and their accident involvement. Logistic regression models were developed to explore the relationships between those variables. The analysis revealed that males when compared to females, had a reduced perception of the risk related to using cell phones. The analysis also showed that participants with a lowered perception of risk were more likely to be involved in an accident.
“Paramedics are Born Risk-Takers”: The Influence of Paramedic Identity and Sleepiness Upon the Self-Reported Risky Driving Behaviors of Paramedic University Students
Marilena Juettemeier, University of the Sunshine CoastShow Abstract
Bridie Scott-Parker, University of the Sunshine Coast
Objective: Young novice drivers remain overrepresented in road crashes worldwide during the earliest period of independent driving. Newly graduated emergency responders may also be young novice drivers, and as such not only are new to driving independently, they are new to driving in the context as an emergency responder. Recent recognition of road safety risks for paramedics specifically has seen changes to paramedic student training, and a growing interest in the influence of paramedic identity, and fatigue, on driving behaviour. Thus, the current study examined the relationship between fatigue and professional paramedic identity, and risky driving behaviours in paramedic students. Method: Paramedic students (n=74, female=40) aged (M(SD)=20.94(2.07)) from the University of the Sunshine Coast completed an online survey which measured sociodemographics, paramedic identity, sleepiness, and self-reported risky driving behaviours via the Behaviour of Young Novice Driver Scale (BYNDS). Results: Backward elimination regressions revealed that sleepiness and paramedic professional identity exert a differential influence, explaining 37.0% of the variance in self-reported risky driving behaviours of paramedic students as measured by the composite BYNDS; 28.8-57.6% of the variance in the five BYNDS subscales; and 19.4% of the variance in self-reported frequency of driving tired. Conclusions: While caution is warranted given the relatively small sample, given the great risks of crash for young drivers, and paramedics, it appears tertiary training programs and placements should emphasise the positive influence of paramedic identity (particularly pride in profession) upon driving while minimising the negative influence of sleepiness and paramedic identity (including paramedic attitudes and profession status).
Linking Data from Multiple Sources to Enhance Research on Young Drivers
Yudan Wang, University of North Carolina, Chapel HillShow Abstract
Bong-Jin Choi, North Dakota State University
May Kuo, University of North Carolina, Charlotte
Christopher Baggett, University of North Carolina, Charlotte
State crash data, although generally accessible to most researchers, have typical limitations that make the examination of many young driver issues challenging, if not impossible. A breakthrough in solving this dilemma is achieved by the New Jersey Traffic Safety Outcomes Data Warehouse, which links crash, licensing, vital, health, citation, and Census data. We are trying to create a similar data system in North Carolina. It is a highly complex undertaking as none of these data sets has been designed to allow for external linkage. In this presentation, we reported the data linkage methods that we use by demonstrating the procedures in linking crash data and traffic offense data from the court system. We described the four major steps in conducting the linkage: data cleaning, identifying potential matches via a blocking scheme, hierarchical deterministic linkage, and probabilistic linkage. Finally, we discussed some current and upcoming projects for which the linked data will be utilized.
Tailoring an Innovative Driver-Training Intervention for Youth with Autism
Clara Silvi, University of the Sunshine CoastShow Abstract
Bridie Scott-Parker, University of the Sunshine Coast
This paper provides an overview of a driver-training intervention for young drivers with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Graduated driver licensing programs (GDL) were developed and implemented in countries around the world in an attempt to improve young driver safety by moderating driving practice and regulating driving exposure. Concurrently, however, GDL assumes all drivers are the same without considering the implications regarding neurodevelopmental conditions, such as ASD. Young drivers with ASD (ASD-drivers) can experience challenges additional to young drivers without ASD (neurotypical-drivers) and therefore it is essential that they have access to driver-training interventions that can accommodate their individual-specific needs. Guarding Automobile Drivers through Guidance Education and Training (GADGET) uses a hierarchical approach that can adapt to individual goals and driving skills of young learner drivers. Overlaid with ASD characteristics and comorbidities, GADGET was combined with an innovative pre-licence driver intervention targeting parents, Situation Awareness Fast-tracking including identifying Escape Routes (SAFER), designed to improve situation awareness skills (SAS) and escape route identification skills (ERS) in young neurotypical-drivers. SAFER-ASD is designed as a driver-training intervention to be used by parents in pre-licence SAS and ERS acquisition, and learner phase instruction, of their ASD-drivers.
Effects of a Training Program on Driver Calibration in Attention Maintenance
James Unverricht, Old Dominion UniversityShow Abstract
Yusuke Yamani, Old Dominion University
William J. Horrey, AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety
Studies have shown that young drivers are particularly poor at maintaining attention to the forward roadway. At the same time, drivers tend to be poorly calibrated with respect to their actual level of driving skill. Existing training programs such as FOrward Concentration and Attention Learning (FOCAL) have been shown to improve young driver’s attention maintenance behaviors. The current study extends previous works on driver training, focusing on self-appraisal of driving ability and calibration of driving skills. FOCAL- and Placebo-trained drivers navigated through various scenarios in a driving simulator and their calibration scores (subjective performance – objective performance) were collected via questionnaire of attention maintenance performance and analyzing their objective attention maintenance performance. Results showed that FOCAL improved both driver attention maintenance performance and their calibration. These results suggest the possibility that current driver training programs in fact increase driver’s self-awareness of their own performance. Future works should investigate using more various measurement techniques to help further explain the training effect on driver calibration.
Kinematic Risky Driving Behavior among Younger and Older Drivers: Experience Matters
Bruce Simons-Morton, National Institutes of Health (NIH)Show Abstract
Pnina Gershon, National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Johnathon Ehsani, Johns Hopkins University
Fearghal O'Brien, National College of Ireland
Chunming Zhu, NIH
Gary Gensler, EMMES Corporation
Rob gore-Langton, EMMES Corporation
Charlie Klauer, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Thomas Dingus, VTTI
Objective. This research examined the extent and duration that rates of elevated gravitational force events (kinematic risky driving or KRD) among novice16 to 17-year-old drivers compared to those of 18 to 20, 21 to 25, and 35 to 55-year-old drivers over a two-year period. Methods. Data were sampled from the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) naturalistic driving study that recruited a U.S. national sample of study participants. KRD rates and 95% confidence intervals by age and sex were calculated for each 6-month period and total driving. General Linear Mixed models (GLIMMIX) examined interactions by driver age, sex, and driving period. Results. Average KRD rates were twice as high for 16 to 17-year-old novice drivers compared to the two oldest age groups for total driving and the first three 6-month periods. GLIMMIX analyses, which also found that KRD rates in the novice group were higher for males than females and KRD declined after 6-months. Conclusion. Risky driving in the form of KRD rates were higher among novice teenagers compared to older, more experienced drivers for at least 18 months, despite a decline in rates among novices after 6-months. The prolonged period of elevated rates of risky driving behavior suggests the need to enhance novice driver prevention approaches such as Graduated Driver’s Licensing limits, parent restrictions, and post-licensure training.
Improving young drivers’ speed estimation and management skills through concurrent feedback: A Simulator Study
Chen Chai, Tongji UniversityShow Abstract
Ziyao Zhou, Tongji University
Xuesong Wang, Tongji University
Bridie Scott-Parker, University of the Sunshine Coast
Young drivers, intentionally or not, are less likely to obey speed limits and are less likely to adjust their driving behaviour according to local road conditions. Such speed estimation and management skills can be improved by providing specific feedback regarding an individual’s actions. This study operationalises Tongji’s high fidelity driving simulator to test the effect of two types of feedback regarding travelling speed – concurrent and retrospective feedback – upon young driver travelling speed. Forty-five young drivers aged 19 to 21 years (n=30 males) were grouped according to three risk levels (n=15 in each level) through questionnaire-based personality and driving skill assessment including sensation seeking, anxiety, driving anger, driving attitudes, situation awareness, and reaction speed. After a baseline drive in which all drivers had the opportunity to travel in three speed zones, 30 drivers received concurrent feedback during a second simulator drive while 15 drivers received retrospective feedback – based on their baseline drive – before the second drive. Assessment of speed profiles and self-estimated speed indicated that concurrent feedback is generally more effective in improving immediate speed management. Through comparison across the three risk groupings of young drivers, concurrent feedback was found to be more effective for high risk young drivers. Given the great crash risks experienced by young drivers in the earliest stages of their independent driving lifetimes, training and education efforts should focus on providing real-time feedback regarding current travelling speeds, while technology may be optimised by provision of feedback regarding real-time risky driving speeds.
Teaching drivers with autism: Perspectives of specialized driver educators
Janice M Bonsu, Ohio State UniversityShow Abstract
Meghan E Carey, Children's Hospital of Phildaelphia
Rachel K Myers, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Benjamin E Yerys, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Cynthia J Mollen, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Allison Curry, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Background/Objective: The transition from adolescence to adulthood presents significant challenges for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their families. A substantial proportion of adolescents with ASD have restricted access to transportation, contributing to social isolation. Independent licensure enables travel to places of employment, school, and social activities and may mitigate some of this isolation. Our recent study indicates that one in three adolescents with ASD acquire a driver’s license by age 21, and our survey of parents suggest that many more may plan on driving. Thus, there is a critical need for research on the unique learning-to-drive process for adolescents with ASD that may inform the development of tailored supports and interventions for this population. The objective of this study was to understand the driving instruction process for students with ASD through in-depth interviews with specialized driver educators. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with driver educators recruited through snowball sampling within the Association of Driving Rehabilitation Specialists. Eligible participants included occupational therapists certified as driving rehabilitation specialists and certified driver instructors with specialized training to teach adolescents with ASD. We developed a semi-structured interview guide that investigated the following areas: driving evaluations, family engagement, instructional strategies, and recommendations to improve the training process. Interviews proceeded until data reached thematic saturation. All interviews were conducted by telephone, audio-recorded, and transcribed. We employed a directed content analysis to develop the coding scheme for thematic coding. A random sample of transcripts were independently coded by two co-authors to assess intercoder reliability using NVivo (Version 11, QSR International). Coded transcripts were then re-read by the study team to develop themes mapped to the interview guide domains through consensus discussion. Results: Participants. We interviewed 17 driver educators who primarily identified as occupational therapists (88%). Analysis: Co-authors achieved near perfect coding agreement across all codes utilized (99.5%, Range: 97.6%–100%). Driving evaluations. Most educators use specific processes for determining driver readiness including visual, cognitive, physical, and behavioral assessments. Many also review the Adolescent Life Skills Checklist to assess the independence and maturity of the student driver. Family engagement. A critical partnership exists between the student driver, educator, and family. Educators noted that some families paradoxically limit their student’s independence at home (e.g., will not leave them home for extended periods of time, heavy supervision while cooking), while wanting them to expand their independence through the task of driving. While parents are often eager, educators explained that many students lack interest and have anxiety about driving. Therefore, many educators recommend that families work to expand student’s independence, introduce pre-driving activities (e.g. bike riding) to develop navigation and environmental scanning skills, and give the student an opportunity to be an engaged front-seat passenger before pursuing behind-the-wheel training. Instructional Strategies. Educators shared that successful strategies to teach driving skills include visual instruction through models, simulations and driving apps, and passenger/commentary driving. Recommendations. While educators disagreed regarding exact teaching methodology, they acknowledged that instructing students with ASD requires specialized experience. Further, the lack of best practice guidelines left educators concerned that the majority of driving educators may be poorly equipped to instruct students with ASD. Conclusions: These results may help tailor the learning-to-drive process for educators, families, and students with ASD. Specifically, educators identified key actions that can be taken by families to enhance student driving readiness and likelihood of licensure success. Through rigorous assessment and utilization of diverse teaching strategies, educators are able to determine driving readiness and help prepare students for on-road-driving. Opportunities exist to enhance families’ understanding of the skills needed to initiate on-road-driving and to standardize teaching and share assessment and educational tools with non-specialized educators. Our future research will examine the perspectives of additional key stakeholders—including family members and the students themselves—as a next step in understanding the unique challenges and successes in the learning-to-drive process for adolescents with ASD.
“My Practice Felt ‘Meh’ ”. Insight into Learner Driver Practice via a Logbook APP
Bridie Scott-Parker, University of the Sunshine CoastShow Abstract
Zachary Fitz-Walter, Eat More Pixels
Jimmy Ti, Eat More Pixels
Kiri Patton, University of Queensland
Background: Young drivers persist as a major public health problem due to their over-involvement in road crashes in which they and other road users are injured. In the most-populous Australian state of New South Wales (NSW), young drivers progress through graduated driver licensing (GDL), logging a minimum of 120 hours of supervised practice. While logbooks record some information regarding the Learner’s driving practice – such as duration of driving – much remains unknown. Method: Analysis of logged drives by 1,936 Learners aged 16-19 years (n = 847 males). Results: Learners most commonly practise on sealed roads (75.6%), in light and moderate traffic, between midday and 6pm (47.2%), with their mother (51.3%) or father (34.9%) as their driving supervisor. Generally the driving practice logged was reported as being positive, rated by Learners as good (41.1%) or great (38.9%), with 4.7% of Learners rating it as ‘meh’. Comparisons are also made according to sex of the parent supervisor and the Learner, the period of the week, and the weather. Concluding remarks: This cost-effective, intuitive and appealing version of a compulsory logbook has provided some insight into previously unknown Learner practice experiences and driving exposure. Such innovative endeavours can readily be applied in other motorised jurisdictions. Moreover, the findings can inform the development, application and evaluation of young novice driver training, conditions and restrictions.
Title: Calling while driving by adolescents in 7 U.S. states: prevalence, and cellphone laws
Li Li, Ohio State UniversityShow Abstract
Julie Bower, Ohio State University
Motao Zhu, Nationwide Children's Hospital
Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of calling while driving and explore the associations with state cellphone laws among adolescent drivers. Methods: Data were from 7 states (Alaska, Connecticut, Maryland, Missouri, Montana, North Dakota and Rhode Island) that administrated the 2017 state Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included questions about calling while driving (CWD). Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios. Results: Among 30,754 high school students aged ≥14 years who drove a vehicle during the past 30 days, 44% reported CWD at least one day. The percentage of CWD increased with age (13% for students aged 14 years vs. 65% for aged ≥18 years), and varied by race/ethnicity (50% for white students, 27% for black students, and 33% for Hispanic students). The percentage of CWD among those who reported frequently texting/emailing while driving were 4.28 times that among students who reported never texting/emailing while driving (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.86-4.75). Students living in states with a handheld calling ban were 26% less likely to engage in CWD (95% CI: 0.69-0.79) relative to students in states without handheld calling bans. Young driver all cellphone bans were associated with CWD in univariate analysis, but no significant difference was found after controlling for other variables. Conclusions: Students who were older, non-Hispanic white, reported drinking alcohol prior to driving, and reported texting/emailing while driving were more likely to engage in CWD. Handheld calling bans were associated with a lower prevalence of calling among adolescent drivers.
YOUNG DRIVERS’ VISUAL SEARCH BEHAVIORS IN AUTOMATED VEHICLES
Anuj Pradhan, University of Michigan, Transportation Research InstituteShow Abstract
Heejin Jeong, University of Michigan, Transportation Research Institute
Brian Lin, University of Michigan, Transportation Research Institute
Jennifer Zakrajsek, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Lindsay Ryan, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
David Eby, University of Michigan, Transportation Research Institute
Lisa Molnar, University of Michigan, Transportation Research Institute
There have been rapid advances in technologies that move us closer to the deployment of vehicles with higher levels of automated driving functionalities. Despite the promise of improved safety and reductions in crashes, injuries, and fatalities, there are still significant unknowns regarding the human factors of such vehicles, especially in terms of how drivers or operators of such vehicles will adapt to and use these systems. Moreover, there are unknowns about the type and level of impact of these advanced vehicle technologies on drivers of different age groups, experience, or other characteristics. For SAE Level 2 and Level 3 vehicle automation the human operator still has a responsibility towards monitoring the driving environment, looking out for potential hazards, and being available to take over control of the vehicle when the AV system is unable to do so safely. Monitoring and lookout behavior thus is a critical component of the human operator’s task. These behaviors however are known to be a deficiency in younger drivers during manual driving, and it is unknown if these deficient behaviors will carry over or change during automated driving. To better understand the visual gaze behavior of young drivers during automated driving, an experiment was conducted to measure driver visual gaze behaviors during automated driving and contrast that with behaviors during manual driving.
Cell Phone Engagement Behaviors of Newly Licensed Adolescents in a Driving Simulator Study
Catherine McDonald, University of PennsylvaniaShow Abstract
Jamison Fargo, Utah State University
Thomas Seacrist, Center for Injury Research and Prevention at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Flaura K Winston, Center for Injury Research and Prevention at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Marilyn S Sommers, University of Pennsylvania
Background/Objective: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of adolescent death and disability. Cell phone use while driving in adolescents in a known contributor to crashes. However, little is known about the context in which adolescents engage with their cell phones while driving. This context can include if and how adolescents respond to texts, calls and notifications. The purpose of this study was to describe the proportion of a group of newly licensed adolescents that engaged with a cell phone while driving in a simulator in response to a number of distraction prompts, and the simulated vehicle speed at which they engaged. We also examined the association of self-reported on-road cell phone use while driving with the cell phone engagement behaviors in the simulator. Methods: We report on here a subsample of 30 adolescent drivers who were enrolled in pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a behavioral intervention. As part of the pilot RCT, we enrolled adolescent drivers, ages 16-17, licensed for ≤90 days in Pennsylvania. Participants completed a baseline survey of self-reported questionnaires and an assessment in a driving simulator (driver seat, three channel 4600 LCD (liquid-crystal display) panels (160° field of view), rear view, left and right mirror inlayed images, pedals and a steering system). The simulated assessment included two experimental drives with cell phone related distraction events (Drives A & B) and one experimental drive with presence of a confederate peer passenger and cell phone related distraction events (Drive C). Participants were oriented to the simulator and study cell phone, and were told to drive and treat the cell phone as they normally would. Self-reported items included demographic variables and items on past month on-road cell-phone use while driving, including hand-held calls, hands-free calls, reading a text and sending a text while they were the driver. Responses were treated as continuous measures and were also dichotomized into Never and ≥1 days for analysis. Driving simulator videos of participant behaviors were coded to determine Yes/No engagement with the cell phone and a confederate passenger on six cell phone related distraction events during the assessment: Prompt by study staff to take a picture (Drive A), Incoming text message (Drive A), Incoming phone call (Drive B), Text prompted by study staff (Drive C), Showing a picture prompted by passenger (Drive C) and Incoming text message (C). Metrics for cell phone engagement included: Looking at phone, Picking up phone, Hand manipulation (i.e. texting), Sending a picture, Looking at a picture on the phone, Answering phone call, and Asking passenger to read or send a text. For the participants who engaged with the cell phone during the distraction prompts, simulator vehicle velocity was determined using MATLAB based on the double verified start time of engagement for each metric in each event. Descriptive statistics, including frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviation were used to describe the sample’s self-reported on-road cell phone use while driving, engagement with the cell phone during the distraction events in the simulator and vehicle velocity at first engagement in the simulator. Fisher’s Exact Tests were used to determine the association between self-reported on-road cell phone use while driving and engagement with the cell phone during cell phone related distractions in the simulator. Results: The mean age of the adolescents was 17.08 years; mean length of licensure 51.8 days; 63% female, 80% White, 16.7% Black, 3.3% more than 1 race and 100% non-Hispanic). Table 1 (last page) outlines the cell phone engagement behaviors during the distraction events. When the participants were driving without a confederate peer passenger, 60-66.7% of the sample would “look at the phone” in response to an incoming text, call and take a picture prompt. The proportion who engaged in looking at the phone was relatively higher than picking up or handling the phones (40-56.7%). When the confederate peer passenger was present, 50% of the sample asked a participant to send a text when prompted; only 33% asked the passenger to read a text in response to an incoming notification. When a confederate peer passenger attempted to show a picture on the phone to the driver, 83.3% looked at the picture. Mean vehicle velocity during cell phone engagement across distraction types was 6.52-35.29 mph. Of the proportion who engaged with the cell phone in the simulator, we saw that at most, 41.7% would wait until stopped to complete a task (i.e. send a picture) (range 0-41.7%). Trends indicated that those who self-reported ≥1 day of on-road hand-held calls in the last month had increased engagement with the cell phone in the simulator. We found no relationship between gender and cell phone engagement metrics in the simulator. Conclusions: The context in which adolescents use a cell phone while driving deserves attention for how we develop and implement interventions to reduce cell phone related crashes. Not all adolescents engaged with the cell phone in the simulator, but when they did, they often did at elevated vehicle speeds. Further work is needed to understand spatial and temporal characteristics for adolescent cell phone driving, and identify how these factors place them at risk for crashes.
Adolescents’ Perspectives on Distracted Driving Legislation
Caitlin Pope, Nationwide Children's HospitalShow Abstract
Jessica Mirman, University of Alabama, Birmingham
Despina Stavrinos, University of Alabama, Birmingham
ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Distracted driving is a growing global epidemic. Public health initiatives and legislative efforts designed to decrease the prevalence of distracted driving behaviors have demonstrated small, but significant reductions in distracted driving behaviors and drivers’ crash risk.[2, 3] Increased compliance with distracted driving provisions could enhance their effectiveness. Using the Health Belief Model as a guiding framework, we investigated associations among adolescents’ support for three types of distracted driving legislation and demographic factors, perceived threat to safety, and peer influences. METHODS: Three hundred and seventy-nine adolescents, aged 15-19 (M=16.12, SD=0.56) were recruited from five public high schools in central Alabama (see Table 1). Support for distracted driving legislation was adapted from a traffic safety report : 1) a law against reading or sending text messages/emails while driving, 2) a law against using hand-held cell phones while driving for all ages, and 3) federal government regulation on NDIV technologies to prevent distraction. Answers were binary coded: oppose (somewhat and strongly oppose) and support (somewhat and strongly support). Perceptions on threat to personal safety from other’s distracted driving behavior and peer approval of distracted driving behaviors were measured on 4-point Likert scales. Questions were summed to derive a perceived threat and peer approval score; higher scores indicated stronger endorsement of threat perception and greater perceived peer approval. Bivariate correlations and adjusted odds ratios were used to evaluate the relationships among adolescents’ support for distracted driving legislation, demographic factors, perceived threat to safety, and peer influences. RESULTS: Correlations revealed the more threatening distracted driving behaviors were seen to personal safety, adolescents perceived it to be less acceptable by their peers (rs=p=0.010). Females, compared to males, reported greater perceived threat to safety (p=0.02) and more peer acceptance (p=0.015). Regarding support for laws, 56% (n=213) of the total sample reported strong support for a law against reading or sending text messages/emails while driving. Females and were at two times greater odds of supporting said law (p=0.002) and for every one point increase in perceived threat to safety was associated with a 33% greater likelihood of supporting (p<0.001, see Table 2). A quarter of the total sample (n=93) reported strong support for a law against hand-held cell phone use for all ages while driving. For every one point increase in perceived threat that was a 24% greater likelihood of supporting the law (p<0.001). Lastly, only 17% (n=64) of the total sample strongly supported a proposed federal government regulation on NDIV technology. More perceived threat to safety (p=0.067) and less perceived peer acceptance (p=0.099) was marginally associated with greater odds of supporting a proposed federal government regulation on NDIV technology. DISCUSSION: Investigating adolescents’ perceptions and support provides an opportunity to better inform distracted driving enforcement and legislation. Public health campaigns that incorporate elements related to perceived threat to safety may be more successful with female adolescent drivers than males. Future experimental research should assess behavioral change concepts such as perceived benefits and ecological contexts in conjunction with perceived threat to safety when developing interventions to assist with adolescents decision making process and promote safe driving behaviors.
Understanding the Impact of Road Design Characteristics on Fatal Crash Involvement Risks Among Teen Drivers
Woon Kim, AAA Foundation for Traffic SafetyShow Abstract
Tara Kelley-Baker, AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety
Pedro Adorno, University of Florida
Austin Svancara, University of Alabama, Birmingham
Background and Objectives: Previous findings suggest teens are three to four times as likely to be involved in a crash than other age groups (1, 2). Furthermore, the presence of peer passenger(s), time of day, age of driver, inexperience can significantly impact crash risks among teen drivers (3-5). While a majority of studies have examined differences in driver’s performance, errors and psychological factors, this study seeks to better understand whether certain road infrastructure factors are associated with a higher risk of fatal crash involvement among teen drivers and how the effects of such factors differ after adjusting for non-engineering factors. Methods: This study used data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the General Estimate System for years 2014 to 2015. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were implemented to examine odds ratios of the following factors on the risk of fatal crash involvement among teen drivers: road infrastructure (curve present, work zone present, type of traffic way, traffic control type, segment with a posted speed limit >55 MPH present), driver characteristics (sex, age, presence and age of passenger), temporal variables, model year of vehicle, and collision type. Furthermore, the probability of a fatal crash involvement was examined on different levels for each factor. Results: Similar to previous studies, the adjusted model found the presence of peer passenger(s), male teen drivers, driving at night (especially 3am – 6am), older vehicle model year, and summer season are each associated with an increase in fatal crash involvement risk among teen drivers. Likewise, head-on-collisions and road departures significantly increase the risk of fatal crash involvement. Segments with curves and posted high speed limits were highly associated with fatal crash involvements among teen drivers. Teen drivers were more likely to be involved in a fatal crash while traveling along two-way roads without median lines (OR=2.81; 95% CI=1.54, 5.16) or barriers (OR=2.60; 95% CI=1.65, 4.09) than traveling on divided roads with median barriers. Traffic signals were highly likely to reduce the risk of fatal crash involvement among teen drivers, compared to traveling intersections with regulatory signs (stop/yield signs) (OR=4.37; 95% CI=3.50, 5.46), warning signs (OR=1.82; 95% CI=0.85, 3.92), or no traffic control (OR=4.41; 95% CI=3.72, 5.22). Overall, this study demonstrates some road infrastructure factors are associated with higher degrees of fatal crash involvement risks for teen drivers than non-engineering factors examined in this study. Discussion: Past and current driver education, graduated driver licensure programs, and literature have focused on addressing teen’s driving skills/errors (distraction/inattention, speeding, fatigue, alcohol/drug use, etc.) and environmental factors (season and night driving). However, this study suggests appropriate education and safety awareness campaigns related to road design characteristics to inform on the role, implication, safety benefit and limitation of specific road design components to teen drivers may be needed. Additionally, more studies are needed to understand how road design factors influence crash risks among teen drivers and what countermeasures should be developed to mitigate relevant issues.
Adolescent Distracted Driving Attitudes Influenced by Experience and Individual Differences
Haley Beck, Samford UniversityShow Abstract
Benjamin McManus, University of Alabama, Birmingham
Despina Stavrinos, University of Alabama, Birmingham
Background: The present study examined the attitudes of adolescent drivers about distracted driving and associated issues, particularly how these attitudes were affected by driving experience, gender, sensation seeking, and exposure to someone injured or killed by distracted driving (risk exposure). It was hypothesized that drivers who had less experience, were higher in sensation seeking, and were male would be more accepting of distracted driving. Method: Three hundred two adolescents (Mage = 16.15 years, SD = 0.72; 58% female) reported demographics, driving experience, and attitudes about distracted driving and completed the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale. Data were collected in two in-person sessions approximately 6 weeks apart. Results: Of those sampled, 98.3% reported having received a driving permit and 23.8% had received a driver’s license. The odds of accepting hand held phone use while driving increased by 4.7% for every additional month since acquisition of a permit. Days per week driven and months of driving with a permit at baseline were regressed on acceptance of hand held phone use, resulting in months of driving predicting acceptance. Despite this, no significant differences were found in attitudes between baseline and post-test. The odds of considering hands free cell phone use unacceptable was 31% more likely for participants who knew someone who had been injured or died from texting and driving. Gender differences were found in perceptions of distracted driving skill with greater odds that males believed they were better at texting while driving and multitasking, and greater odds that females would support legislation against reading, typing, and sending text messages. Higher sensation seeking was associated with acceptance of distracted driving behaviors. Discussion: Findings suggest relations among driving experience, individual differences, and acceptance of distracted driving behaviors. Adolescents who drive more may potentially become desensitized to the dangers of driving distractedly, and those who are male or those with increased sensation-seeking may be especially susceptible to this phenomenon of desensitization. This indicates a need to continue distracted driving education past reception of a permit and to consider unique traits of adolescents when doing so.
The Self-Reported Driving Behavior of Young Drivers in Lithuania: An Application of the Behavior of Young Novice Drivers Scale – Lithuania (BYNDS-LI)
Laura Šeibokaitė, Vytautas Magnus UniversityShow Abstract
Auksė Endriulaitienė, Vytautas Magnus University
Kristina Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, Vytautas Magnus University
Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Queensland University of Technology
Natalie Watson-Brown, University of the Sunshine Coast
Bridie Scott-Parker, University of the Sunshine Coast
Background With just one year left in the Decade of Action for Road Safety, it is timely nations reflect on their progress in the realm of improving road safety more generally, and in young driver road safety specifically given the pernicious problem that is young driver risky driving behaviour and road crashes. Effective intervention requires a fundamental foundation of understanding the nature of the problem. Therefore the current study explored the self-reported risky driving behaviour of young drivers in Lithuania, a nation classified as a developed country as recently as 2015. Method The Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale (1) was applied in a sample of 457 Lithuanian young drivers aged 18-24 years, after a rigorous forward-backward translation process. Results Seven factors (risky exposure, transient rule violations, driver misjudgements, driver mood, vehicle overcrowding, personal seatbelt use, substance consumption) explained 65.2% of the variance in self-reported risky driving behaviour as measured by the BYNDS-Li. The most common risky driving behaviours included driving in excess of posted speed limits, and driving at high risk times such as at night and on weekends. Discussion and implications The seven-factor structure of the BYNDS-Li supports arguments that culturally-valid measures should be operationalised in jurisdictions other than those in which they were developed (in the case of the BYNDS, Queensland, Australia). Moreover, systems thinking argues that interventions and efforts must be multi-sectoral and collaborative interventions. In the case of young driver road safety, these should be framed within the 4E’s of education, engineering, enforcement, and engagement.
Estimating the Effect of Passengers in Fatal and Non-fatal Crashes Involving Teen Drivers
Leon Villavicencio, AAA Foundation for Traffic SafetyShow Abstract
Austin Svancara, University of Alabama, Birmingham
Woon Kim, AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety
Tara Kelley-Baker, AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety
Brian Tefft, AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety
Title: Estimating the Effect of Passengers in Fatal and Non-fatal Crashes Involving Teen Drivers Affiliation: AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, Washington DC Background: Previous studies have shown that young drivers’ risk of fatal crash involvement is elevated when passengers are present in the vehicle (1, 2). However, this finding has been observed mainly in studies of fatal crashes; studies that have examined non-fatal crashes have found weaker associations (3). For example, a naturalistic study (4) which measured the driving exposure and crash involvement of the same individuals found no association between the presence of passengers and teen driver crash risk after controlling for other factors. This discrepancy could potentially be attributable to uncontrolled confounding or bias in studies that have examined passenger presence in fatal crashes and in government travel surveys to calculate crash rates (1, 2). This study seeks to investigate the relationship between the presence of passengers and a driver’s crash risk using an innovative statistical method that does not rely on direct measurement of driving exposure. The crash incidence ratio (CIR) (5) quantifies the association of a risk factor with crash involvement using only crash data (not relying on driving exposure data). The CIR is a measure of prevalence of some factor of interest (e.g., passengers) in crashes of a group of interest (e.g., teens) relative to among all drivers in crashes. This method does not rely on the assumptions inherent in studies that compute exposure-based crash rates using separate sources of data for crashes and for driving exposure, yet it can be applied to the large samples available in crash databases rather than only the much smaller samples available in naturalistic driving studies. Methods: This study will compute the CIR using data from the 2016 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) database and the Crash Report Sampling System (CRSS) to investigate all crashes, including those that are fatal and non-fatal. Additional analysis will be performed to investigate the association of passenger presence with death or injuries of the drivers themselves, the passenger, and other road users such as occupants of other vehicles, and non-motorists. Additionally the CIR will also be obtained for drivers in speeding involved crashes and nighttime crashes. Results: Presence of passengers. The CIR for the presence of passengers decreases with the age of the driver. This implies that the prevalence of them carrying a passenger decreases in fatal crashes, as drivers get older. Speeding. Following a similar trend as the presence of passengers, when a fatality involving a teen driver occurs, the CIR odds of it being a speeding-related crash is highest compared to all other age groups. Similarly, this trend declines with age of the driver. Discussions: Teen drivers may need additional training in their ability to drive safely especially when a passenger is in their vehicle. Likewise, additional analysis showed that speeding demonstrated a particular problem area for teen drivers. Interestingly, nighttime driving appears most dangerous among 25-29 year old drivers, perhaps owing, in part, to drinking and driving. Reference: 1. Tefft, B. C., A. F. Williams, and J. G. Grabowski. Teen Driver Risk in Relation to Age and Number of Passengers, United States, 2007–2010, Traffic injury prevention. 2013. 14(3): 283-292. 2. Chen, L. H., S. P. Baker, E. R. Braver, and G. Li. Carrying Passengers as a Risk Factor for Crashes Fatal to 16-and 17-Year-Old Drivers. Jama, 2000. 283(12): 1578-1582. 3. Ouimet, M. C., A. K. Pradhan, A. Brooks-Russell, J. P. Ehsani, D. Berbiche, and B. G. Simons-Morton. Young Drivers and Their Passengers: A systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies on Crash Risk. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2015. 57(1): S24-S35. 4. B. G. Simons-Morton, M. C. Ouimet, Z. Zhang, S. E. Klauer, S. E. Lee, J. Wang, ... and T. A. Dingus. The Effect of Passengers and Risk-Taking Friends on Risky Driving and Crashes/near Crashes among Novice Teenagers. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2011. 49(6): 587-593. 5. Voas, R. B., A. S. Tippetts, E. Romano, D. A. Fisher, and T. Kelley-Baker. Alcohol Involvement in Fatal Crashes under Three Crash Exposure Measures. Traffic Injury Prevention, 2007. 8(2): 107-114.
Identifying High Risk Adolescent Drivers: Agreement between Self-Report and in-Vehicle Kinematic Event Recorders
Brandon Butcher, University of IowaShow Abstract
Cara Hamann, University of Iowa
Michelle Reyes, University of Iowa
Corinne Peek-Asa, University of Iowa
Accurate measures of driving risk for novice drivers are needed to identify teens for targeted interventions and are also needed to evaluate teen driving safety interventions. Comprehensive, objective measures of teen driving risk are problematic to develop. We used data from an intervention trial to measure the agreement and trends between self-reported risky driving behaviors and rates of kinematic errors recorded by an in-vehicle feedback device. 166 teen-parent dyads were enrolled in the study. Self-reported risky driving was assessed through the Risky Driving Inventory, which measured the frequency of risky driving actions and behaviors. Kinematic events were measured using the DriveCam by Lytx in-vehicle video feedback system. The rate of risky driving events was based on vehicle miles travelled. The two measures had a low level of agreement as measured by both the proportion agreement (0.27, 95% CI [0.20, 0.35]) and squared weights kappa (0.08, 95% CI [-0.07, 0.24]). The two measures also differed in identifying high risk teen drivers. For example, among the 49 teen participants who had a high rate of self-reported risky behaviors, 8 (16%) had zero triggered events and 11 (22%) were in the low event rate category. Females were more likely to score themselves higher on self-reported measures, while males were more likely to have higher triggered event rates. These two measures have different underlying conceptual approaches, and they are unlikely to yield similar results when used to test interventions or identify high risk drivers. The low agreement has important implications for intervention trials, as the evidence could be highly variable based on the chosen outcome measure.