The first half of this session explores papers that study the impact of studded tire use on pavement structures and evaluate wear resistance of experimental surface treatments. The second half of the session includes papers describing experimental investigations of pothole patching materials
Impact of Studded Tire Use on Pavement Structures in Cold Climates
Osama Abaza, University of Alaska, AnchorageShow Abstract View Presentation
Mahmoud Arafat, Florida International University
Muhammad Saif Uddin, University of Alaska, Anchorage
In cold regions, such as Alaska, using studded tires is common among the public when driving in icy and snowy conditions. However, studded tires cause extensive wear to asphalt pavement, reducing pavement life. This study utilized wear rate models and proposed a methodology to quantify the pavement damage as a result of studded tires. The approach is applied in a case study from a sample of Alaska statewide road segments. Parking lot surveys and household surveys were employed to examine the extent of studded tire use in the state and alternative cost-effective solutions for the Alaska roadway network. A pavement life cycle cost review was established considering a number of variables to discover a realistic cost of roadway resurfacing and rehabilitation. Wear rates due to studded tires and rut rates due to wheel loads were found for different highway classes. Results show higher average wear rates due to studded passenger vehicles on freeways (0.0116 in. per 100,000 studded vehicles) than the average rut rates due to heavy wheel loads (0.0049 in. per 100,000 trucks) and lower average wear rates on arterial and collector roads (0.0062 in. and 0.0045 in. per 100,000 studded vehicles, respectively). Finally, estimates showed that studded tire use reduced asphalt surface life on the selected freeway sample in the case study by about 7 years, which is about 47% loss in pavement life based on the initial design life of 15 years, other classes of roads experienced a lower reduction in service life.
Field Evaluation of Experimental Concrete Surface Wear Mitigation Treatments on I-80 in California
Jeff Stempihar, NCEShow Abstract
Jose Medina, NCE
Thomas Van Dam, NCE
Pete Schmalzer, NCE
California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) continues to battle concrete surface wear from chained tires on mountain corridors subjected to high truck volumes and frequent, heavy snowfall. Interstate 80 (I-80) through the Sierra Nevada Mountains is an example where wheel path ruts, exceeding one-inch (25 mm) depth, can develop over the course of just a few winter seasons. Between 2015 and 2018, experimental surface hardeners and polyester polymer concrete (PPC) inlays were constructed on concrete pavements on I-80 near Truckee, California. Three types of lithium silicate-based surface hardeners were applied to a section of I-80 in 2015. On adjacent sections of I-80, PPC wheel path inlays were constructed in 2015 (denoted 2015 PPC Inlays) and again in 2017 (denoted 2017 PPC Inlays) using different binders, aggregate, and construction techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate wear resistance of these experimental treatments. These sections were evaluated over a multi-year period (after each winter season) to measure surface wear and determine if the treatments significantly reduced concrete surface wear. Surface hardeners, based on lithium silicates, were found to be ineffective at reducing surface wear rate compared to adjacent untreated, control sections. The 2015 PPC Inlays did not perform well but were exposed to significantly more chained trucks than other experimental sections. In comparison, the 2017 PPC Inlays show promising wear resistance after one winter season, but additional monitoring should be performed to confirm this finding.
Experimental Investigation of Pothole Patching Materials
Debaroti Ghosh, Nichols Consulting EngineersShow Abstract View Presentation
Mugurel Turos, University of Minnesota
Mihai Marasteanu, University of Minnesota
Pothole repairs represent a major maintenance item in the budget of many highway agencies. Currently, there are no required specifications for patching materials. Although the appearance of potholes every spring is a major public relations concern, limited experimental work has been performed on pothole repair materials to evaluate their mechanical properties. Mechanical testing can be used to select patching materials based on the estimated durability of the pothole repair, such as short-, medium-, and long-term. A number of new materials and technologies are available for more durable solutions for winter pothole repairs, however, they require additional heat source and are more expensive. In this paper, an experimental investigation is performed to determine if relevant material properties can be obtained on pothole repair materials using current testing methods for asphalt paving materials. A total of six materials consisting of both summer and winter mixtures were investigated. Several issues were encountered during the sample preparation of cold mixtures, which require significant curing in order to gain strength and stiffness at low temperatures. For the cold mixtures, only Indirect Tensile creep and strength testing were performed, while for the other mixtures fracture energy and toughness were also determined. Based on the results, a number of recommendations are made to improve the durability of pothole repair materials.
Patching Potholes Using a Half-Warm Mix Asphalt Produced by 100% RAP and Waste Cooking Oil–Based Biobinder
Taekil Oh, Washington State UniversityShow Abstract View Presentation
Kun Zhang, California State University, Chico
Balasingam Muhunthan, Washington State University
Ran Li, Washington State University
The specific aim of this work is to patch potholes using a newly-designed half-warm mix asphalt (HWMA), which contained 100% reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and a Biobinder polymerized from a waste cooking oil (WCO). Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of the fully-blended RAP binder and Biobinder at different mix proportions. Test were also done to investigate the mechanical performance of the WCO-RAP mixes produced at different Biobinder contents and mixing temperatures. The results showed that the Biobinder softens the stiff RAP binder and works as a binding agent in the HWMA. With increase in Biobinder contents, the WCO-RAP mixes became more ductile, as their indirect tensile (IDT) strength values decreased and post-peak slopes from the load-displacement curves became more flat. The lower post-peak slope led to the increase of cracking tolerant index (CTindex) values that were analyzed using the IDEAL cracking test method, which indicated that WCO-RAP mixes exhibited higher cracking resistance as the increase of Biobinder contents. The mixes produced at the temperatures of 90°C and 100°C did not show significant difference in terms of IDT strengths. However, higher mixing temperature was found to be beneficial for the better mix integration and improve the rutting and moisture resistances. All the evaluated WCO-RAP mixes had sufficient bonding shear strength with the base asphalt mix, which is a crucial parameter for a long-lasting patching mix. The field pothole patching work showed that both the Biobinder content and patching temperature were crucial for high quality of pothole patching.