The session will explore impacts of urban vehicle-miles-traveled on auto mode share, air pollution, and ways that states are working to reduce VMT and carbon pollution.
Emissions from the Taxi and For-Hire Vehicle Transportation Sector in New York City
Jennifer Roberton, City of New York Mayor's Office of SustainabilityShow Abstract View Presentation
Stephan Schmidt, City of New York, Taxi & Limousine Commission
Rodney Stiles, City of New York, Taxi & Limousine Commission
The launch of app-based for-hire vehicle (FHV) companies has led to increased mobility options, but the increase in vehicular traffic created by this growing sector has also presented challenges. New York City saw the number of FHVs triple from 2010 to 2019 due to the advent of app-based FHV companies. The study seeks to understand the impact this increase in for-hire vehicle usage has on greenhouse gas emissions in New York City. The study uses data collected by the NYC Taxi and Limousine Commission, which regulates the FHV and taxi industries, and the NYC Mayor’s Office of Sustainability, which publishes the City’s greenhouse gas emission inventory. The main result of the study is that although the overall per vehicle efficiency of the for-hire vehicle fleet has improved, the growth in registered vehicles has led to emissions from FHVs and taxis increasing by 66 percent from 2010 to 2018. Electric vehicles, if barriers to their adoption are addressed and if adoption doesn’t outpace fleet vehicle attrition, present a potential opportunity for emission reduction in the FHV fleet.
Office Commuting Patterns in the Greater Toronto Area: The Importance of Automobile Mode Share in Understanding the Full Impact of Urban Form on Vehicle Kilometers Traveled
Yang Xi, University of TorontoShow Abstract View Presentation
Jeff Allen, University of Toronto
Steven Farber, University of Toronto
Eric Miller, University of Toronto
Robert Keel, University of Toronto
Vehicle Kilometers Travelled (VKT) has been widely used in regional planning strategies as a key performance indicator of sustainability, and many growth plans have been proposed to reduce the VKT of work trips with a focus on land use development in employment centers. Despite the potential impacts of urban form on VKT reduction, the fundamentals of how the contribution is made remain unclear. This study analyzes the relationship between urban form, VKT, and mode shares by examining the office commuting patterns in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA) through a structural equation modeling approach. The model supports the substantial impacts of urban form on VKT reduction; however, it indicates that such impacts are mostly made through mode share shifting, rather than directly on reduced travel distances. Based on the findings from the model, a regional growth plan for the GTHA is further evaluated. It is found that the growth plans with a focus on land use densities of employment centers are not likely to significantly reduce regional VKT without easing auto dependency for commuting. Thus, it is recommended to provide more sustainable travel alternatives for workers in employment centers to achieve sufficient reduction in VKT.
California's Move to Rein in Vehicle Miles Traveled: Policy Reform and Implementation
Christopher Ganson, California Governor's OfficeView Presentation