How Does Public Support for Sustainable Transportation Policies Vary Across Countries?
Xuenan Ni, Cambridge Systematics, Inc.Show Abstract
Joanna Moody, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Jinhua Zhao, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
As the world shapes a global agenda to mitigate climate change, national governments are looking to define and build support for sustainable development strategies for the transportation sector. In this international landscape, countries will look to learn from one another, but identifying peer countries for this learning can prove a challenge. In this study, we measure public support for transportation policies and use this as measure of cultural distance for identifying peer countries. We modeled public support for 11 transportation policies in an international sample of 41,932 individuals in 51 countries/regions. Using a model that controls for individual effects, we measure pure “country-level” differences in public policy support. Measuring public support for different transportation policies can help policymakers understand how the public evaluates and envisions the role of government in shaping the current as well as future urban transport system, and to anticipate difficulties of implementing certain types of policies due to public resistance. In general, we find the highest public support for a given policy appears in countries that have not yet seen significant investment in the target infrastructure or service. We show that considering public support of transportation policies gives a different perspective than traditional indicators of economic development or motorization level, helping policymakers understand what the public wants and how they might build public support for new transportation policies. Finally, we present a clustering framework that goes beyond development status and geographical adjacency to help identify peer countries for policy learning.
Assessing the Energy Savings Potential of Employer Provided Mobility: A Case Study Approach
Daniel Zimny-Schmitt, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)Show Abstract
Alana Wilson, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
Joshua Sperling, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
Andrew Duvall, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
Stanley Young, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
This paper provides an overview of new research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory on Employer Provided Mobility (EPM) as a potentially significant integrated strategy for developing sustainable mobility in urban areas. EPM is not a new concept, as employers have facilitated carpools and transit access for decades as part of the spectrum of choices for commuting to work. Traditionally, these legacy efforts have been referred to as transportation demand management (TDM), and have often included involvement from planning agencies and other entities rather than from employers themselves. However, in the past decade technology combined with societal changes (some of which have been incubated by technology) has greatly influenced both the spectrum of mode choices available and their desirability to employees seeking alternatives to driving alone. New choices include employer provided buses equipped with Wi-Fi, micro-mobility such as electrified scooters and bicycles, and on-demand transit, which can be combined with traditional modes of carpool and transit (all enhanced with smartphone connectivity) to expand the modal choices. Strained infrastructure and road capacity in many metropolitan areas, coupled with generational and cultural shifts in attitudes toward mobility, are pushing more of the burden of commuting logistics onto employers. These EPM factors are identified as having the potential to significantly impact commute travel dynamics with implications for urban regions and employer investments. Initial estimates suggest a potential savings of 942,100 gallons of gasoline and 8,573 mt-CO2e annually from a coordinated effort by employers in four employment clusters in the Metro Denver region.
Optimizing the Bikesharing System from a Life-Cycle Perspective
Hao Luo, Purdue UniversityShow Abstract View Presentation
Fu Zhao, Purdue University
Wei-Qiang Chen, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Hua Cai, Purdue University
Bike sharing system (BSS), viewed as a green transportation mode, has made great development globally. While BSS operators have put lots of efforts on improving the system performance, such as bike rebalancing and launching more bikes, the current BSSs are facing several sustainability challenges. Bike oversupply could lead to intensive greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to manufacturing excessive bikes, while frequent bike rebalancing could significantly increase fuel consumption of rebalancing vehicles (e.g., vans). The existing studies only optimized given BSS from the system operation’s perspective (i.e. rebalancing), having predetermined bike fleet size and rebalancing frequencies. However, how many bikes a city needs, and the rebalancing frequencies should also be optimized from the life cycle’s perspective. This study proposes a simulation model to obtain the optimal system design (minimum bike fleet size and optimal bike layout) and also optimizes the bike rebalancing, aiming to minimize the GHG emissions of the BSS from the life cycle perspective. Using a dock-less BSS in Xiamen as a case study, we identified the optimal system design and operation strategies, considering the tradeoffs between having more bikes (requiring less rebalancing) and rebalancing the system more frequently (requiring less bikes). Our results show that (1) the current dock-less BSS in Xiamen is significantly oversupplied, only 15% of the current bikes is needed to serve the same demands; (2) from the perspective of the system’s life cycle GHG emission, it is not worthy to decrease the bike fleet size through more frequent rebalancing; and (3) choosing appropriate number of rebalancing vehicles, loading capacity, as well as setting multiple depots can reduce the system’s GHG emissions from bike rebalancing.
Everything Is Connected: How Attitudes, Skills, and Access Matter for Shaping Sustainable Travel Behavior
Chunli Zhao, Lunds UniversitetShow Abstract
Zahra Hamidi, Malmo Universitet
This study applies the motility framework to explore how the attitude towards transport modes, skills of using those travel modes and possibilities of access to the transport modes are associated with individuals’ travel behavior. It employs survey and spatial data based on three cities Beijing, Gothenburg and Malmo. Overall, our findings highlight that even the three cities represent varying urban contexts, the all three motility dimensions of attitude, skills and access are significantly associated with individuals’ travel behavior. Residents who have environmental awareness in three cities intend to travel with public transport and cycling if the physical condition is optimal for them to access to those two modes. 3 km is identified as the most preferred distance for cycling, while it appears a competitive or substitute relations between public transport and cycling when the travel distance is shorter than 5 km. Good access to public transport likely increase the using of cycling and public transport and reducing the car using. Enhancing the public awareness about environmental issues, planning the city to reduce commuting distances within 5 km and providing improved access and better quality infrastructure for public transport and bicycle are the key aspects for encouraging people to travel with sustainable modes than cars. Our findings support that in order for mobility policies to be able to successfully shift individuals’ travel behavior towards sustainable alternatives, the planners need to take a more holistic approach and design policy packages that integrates all the three dimensions instead of focusing on a single dimension in isolation. Keywords: Motility, Sustainable travel, Public transport, Cycling, Cars
A Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Method for Sustainable Transportation Network Design
Yongping Zhang, California State Polytechnic University, PomonaShow Abstract
Hongzhi Lin, Southeast University
Sustainable transportation typically has three dimensions: social, economic, and environmental. However, there are very limited studies that simultaneously consider all of the three dimensions. Meanwhile, safety, as an essential indicator of sustainability, has not gained enough attention in the past. This paper intends to integrate all of these four dimensions for sustainable transportation network design. To achieve this goal, a multi-objective bi-level model is developed to explicitly capture the leader-follower nature of the relationship between planners and travelers. At the upper-level, planners design sustainable transportation network by optimizing the impact of a fixed investment budget. While at the lower-level, a sequential four-step model with feedback is formulated to represent travelers’ behavior in response to the transportation network design at the upper-level. The feedback procedure can converge to transportation system equilibrium which is further fed back to the upper-level to measure network sustainability. To solve the proposed multi-objective bi-level model, a multiple attribute decision making method (MADM) is designed on the basis of Dirichlet distribution, method of successive averages (MSA), Frank–Wolfe algorithm, and Dijkstra algorithm. A simulation study using Nguyen-Dupuis network verified the effectiveness of the proposed method. It is found that the proposed algorithm is efficient to search a compromise solution. The method is particularly operable in ranking the level of sustainability.
Sustainability-Based Appraisal of Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Review of the Asian Development Bank’s Framework
Samuel Labi, Purdue UniversityShow Abstract
Asif Faiz, Faiz and Associates, LLC
Tariq Saeed, Purdue University
In project decision making, consideration of the principles of sustainable development continues to be motivated by changes in the transportation landscape. A standard methodology to do this is to use multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques. With MCDM, the investment decisions of transportation agencies can be made more accountable and transparent. In 2010, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) adopted the Sustainable Transport Initiative Operational Plan (STI-OP) which recognizes the need for appraisal criteria related to accessibility, affordability, environment-friendliness, and safety. The Veron-Okamato and Sakamoto report proposed the Sustainable Transport Appraisal Rating (STAR) tool to help design more sustainable transport projects in line with STI-OP, assess the sustainability of ADB’s transport projects, and monitor portfolio changes related to sustainability. STAR was developed as ADB’s contribution to the emerging common assessment framework for the eight multilateral development banks. This paper presents a review of ADB’s STAR framework particularly with regard to the sustainability criteria and MCDM methodology. The paper first discusses overall sustainability considerations in project evaluation, and reviews typical sustainability criteria and appraisal methodologies in the literature vis-à-vis those of STAR. This paper finds that similar to most other MCDM frameworks in the literature, the STAR methodology include mechanisms for weighting, scaling, and amalgamation of the various project appraisal criteria. However, the STAR methodology offers a novel way to incorporate uncertainty in sustainability assessment. By incorporating sustainability early in the project development phase, development agencies are poised to make significant contributions towards the realization of the goals related to sustainable development.
High-Tech Business Location, Transportation Accessibility, and Implications for Sustainability: Differences Between High-Tech Specializations Using in the U.S. Two Booming Regions
Ahoura Zandiatashbar, University of Illinois, ChicagoShow Abstract
Shima Hamidi, University of Texas, Arlington
Nicole Foster, University of the West of England, Bristol
Studies on the accessibility needs of high-tech firms often draw on agglomeration economies and creative class assumptions that emphasizes how transit and walkability encourage clustering, knowledge exchange and innovation. As a result, some argue that knowledge-led economic development aligns with sustainability planning, especially as high-tech industries become increasingly tied to smart city agendas. However, due to the new logistic revolution, global e-economy, rise of online workers and urban land values, it is likely that some tech industries prefer strong highway systems, potentially leading to higher GHG emissions. As such, the relationship between the knowledge economy and sustainability outcomes remains unclear. This study addresses these gaps by quantifying the geography of high-tech zones in North Texas and Northern California, measuring their specializations, and exploring their differences in terms of transportation infrastructures. Our results only partially support research suggesting high-tech industries prefer dense, walkable, transit-accessible places. For instance, we found large numbers of high-tech firms (e.g. IT and aerospace) are still attracted to peripheral, auto-centric spaces, which is at odds with sustainable transportation policies. Hence, policymakers may need to revisit their growth strategies to not only succeed in growing their knowledge economy, but also secure sustainability goals.