Performance Measures for Bicycling: Trips and Miles Traveled in Minnesota
Greg Lindsey, University of Minnesota, Twin CitiesShow Abstract
Jessica Schoner, Urban Design 4 Health, Inc.
Transportation managers are grappling with the challenge of implementing performance management systems for all modes of transportation, including bicycling. Comprehensive measures of the magnitude of bicycling for states, regions, or municipalities do not exist. Development of performance measures for bicycling is especially challenging because bicycle traffic historically has not been monitored and, except for the journey-to-work question asked by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, surveys about bicycling have not been administered consistently over time. This paper presents two sketch plan methods for estimating the number of bicycle trips and miles traveled in the state of Minnesota. One approach involves use of results from a decennial travel behavior inventory administered by the Metropolitan Council to adjust and extrapolate estimates from the Census journey-to-work question statewide. This approach indicates Minnesotans take between 85 and 96 million bicycle trips annually. This estimate is likely low because it does not include all recreational trips taken on weekends. The miles traveled measure estimated with this approach (between 165 and 198 million miles) also is believed to be low. The second approach involves extrapolation from a randomized population survey administered annually by the Minnesota Department of Transportation. This approach indicates Minnesotans take approximately 75.2 million bicycle trips annually. The miles traveled estimate based on this approach is 139 million miles. Both approaches have limitations but can be replicated over time to provide information about trends. Additional research and experimentation is needed to develop valid, reliable measures of the magnitude of bicycling, especially at the state level.
To Report or Not to Report: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand the Intentions to Report Cycling Incidents by Young Adults
Sigal Kaplan, Hebrew University of JerusalemShow Abstract
Kira Janstrup, Technical University of Denmark
Carlo Prato, University of Queensland
This study explores the behavioral factors underlying the reporting intentions of cycling accidents. The proposed analytical framework is an adapted version of the Theory of Planned Behavior accounting for the linkage beween attitudes and the perceived difficulties, in order to understand the barriers impeding cycling accident reporting intentions. The barriers consist of attitudes that accident reporting is useless, preference to allocate time to other activities, concerns about family distress and social image, distrust in the police, and medical consultation aversion. The framework was validated by means of a survey, which yielded 1,512 complete responses from cyclists. The estimated structural equation model revealed: (i) the perceived difficulties are related to reporting intentions, attitudes that accident reporting is useless, and the preference to allocate time to other activities; (ii) medical consultation aversion has a higher weight than distrust in the police in demotivating cycling accident reporting intentions; (iii) the latent factors are mainly related to socio-economic characteristics and last cycling accident characteristics; (iv) information provision regarding the societal benefits of accident reporting is important for increasing the reporting rate.
Quantifying the Equity of Bikeshare Access in U.S. Cities
Julia Ursaki, University of VermontShow Abstract
Lisa Aultman-Hall, University of Vermont
Bikesharing programs are an increasingly popular potential solution to many of the transportation sustainability challenges that cities face. The environmental and economic aspects of sustainability for bikesharing has been discussed extensively. While critical to overall success, the social equity aspect of bikeshare sustainability has been considered but not quantitatively assessed. This study finds that there is inequitable distribution of bikeshare access among the population groups in US cities. A spatial analysis that compares social and economic characteristics based on the US Census Bureau American Community Survey for areas within and outside of bikeshare service areas in seven cities is presented. The locations of bikeshare stations were used to define the bikeshare service areas with a 500 meter buffer around each station in ArcGIS. Differences in access based on race and income variables were found in Boston, Chicago, Denver, Seattle, and New York City. Moreover, in Chicago, New York City, Denver, and Seattle, there was also a difference in the education level variables. The inequity in bikeshare access should be addressed by planning agencies and local governments. Corrective actions may include public subsidies for stations in low income neighborhoods and educational resources.
Evaluation of an Electric Bike Pilot Project at Three Employment Campuses in Portland, Oregon
John Macarthur, Portland State UniversityShow Abstract
Nicholas Kobel, Portland State University
This paper examines preliminary results of an electric bike (e-bike) pilot project, which took place April 2014–September 2015 in the Portland region. Participants from three campuses working at regional employer Kaiser Permanente Northwest were issued an e-bike for 10 weeks to use for various trip purposes, focusing on first/last-mile commuting. Participants were asked to complete three surveys—before, during and after using the e-bike—to evaluate how their perceptions and levels of cycling may have changed. Responses were analyzed using statistical software and a GIS. Results show that participants biked more often and to a wider variety of places than before the study; they become more confident cyclists after the study; and they cited fewer barriers to cycling when given the opportunity to use an e-bike, particularly for overcoming hills and reducing sweat. This study’s preliminary findings support the general hypothesis that e-bikes enable users to bike to more distant locations, bike more frequently and allow a broader participation in cycling by certain segments of the population through reducing barriers to cycling. Further research is needed to understand how e-bikes might replace other modes of transportation, including standard bicycles, vehicles and public transit.
Revisiting the Four Types of Cyclists: Findings from a National Survey
Jennifer Dill, Portland State UniversityShow Abstract
Nathan McNeil, Portland State University
Understanding the makeup of the population in terms of how people view bicycling can be an important tool in planning bicycle facilities and programs. The City of Portland Bicycle Coordinator Roger Geller proposed a typology which placed people into four types: “strong and fearless,” “enthused and confident,” “interested but concerned,” and “no way no how.” This paper is follow up on a previous paper which documented an effort to test Geller’s typology using Portland data. Here, we use a sample of 3,000 adults living in the 50 largest U.S. metropolitan areas. Based on respondents’ stated level of comfort bicycling in different environments, their interest in bicycling, and recent behavior, we estimate that about one-third of adults are in the no way no how group and about half are interested but concerned. The distribution is similar to our findings for Portland.
There were sever demographic differences, with women were less likely to be enthused and confident or interested but concerned. Aside from the no way no how group, there were no differences in whether respondents had ridden a bike at all in the past 30 days. Differences emerged in where they bicycled and how often. The interested but concerned were least likely to bike for transportation and rode less frequently. Of those who had not ridden in the past 30 days, 46%-56% did not have a bike to ride. Other barriers included needing a vehicle for work/school or other reasons, places being too far, too few bike lanes/trails, and traffic.