Congestion pricing applications, including priced managed lanes, cordon pricing, and road usage charges, are a key interest in urbanized areas to address congestion and revenue needs. This session highlights papers that touch upon best practices, case studies, and research methods in pricing applications.
Why Price Doesn't Matter--The Problem Is Congestion in Your Managed Lane
Russ McCarty, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc.Show Abstract
Michel'le Davis, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority
Kathleen McCune, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority
Reliability Assessment for I-35W MnPASS Express Lanes
Paul Morris, SRF Consulting Group, Inc.
Kenneth Buckeye, Minnesota Department of Transportation
Brad Larsen, Minnesota Department of Transportation
Development of General Data Feed Specifications for Managed and Tolled Lane Facilities
Marshall Ballard, Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority
Arshad Syed, Mott MacDonald, North America
Casey Emoto, Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority
Bus on Shoulders Vision Study in Chicagoland
Srikanth Panguluri, CH2M
John Baczek, Illinois Department of Transportation
What Can Make Congestion Pricing Successful? Tale of Two Congestion Relief Pilot Studies in Connecticut
Yogesh Patel, CDM Smith
Scott Allaire, CDM Smith
I-405 Express Toll Lanes: First-Year Report
Patty Rubstello, Washington State Department of Transportation
Analysis of Concepts of Operation from 10 HOT Lane Projects
Lawrence Glazer, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
I-25 Managed Motorway Pilot Project: Applying Managed Lane Principles to Address Recurring Congestion
Scott Pitera, WSPShow Abstract
David Ungemah, WSP
Darren Henderson, WSP
Treasure Island Mobility Management Program: Designing an Affordability Program and Transit Pass Component Within a Comprehensive Toll Program
Rachel Hiatt, San Francisco County Transportation Authority (SFCTA)
Road Pricing Through Financial Derivatives Based on Travel Time
ke wan, Princeton UniversityShow Abstract
Alain Kornhauser, Princeton University
Travel time derivatives are introduced as financial
derivatives based on road travel times. This is
System Dynamics Approach to Parking Pricing Optimization 1 Based on a CBD Parking Survey
Chen Zhang, Southeast UniversityShow Abstract
Jie He, Southeast University
Lu Xing, Southeast University
Hao Zhang, Southeast University
Ziyang Liu, Southeast University
In this paper, a system dynamics modeling approach is used to simulate future urban traffic conditions under the variations in parking price policies. The parking price algorithm within the methodology is built on the basis of traffic research combined with revealed preference and stated preference survey data collected in Nanjing CBD. Analysis of the impacts of parking price on traffic congestion and bus travel rate, which are the key elements in accomplishing the objectives of parking policy, is conducted using the system dynamics model simulation. The model provides a good fit to historical data and gives useful information on the optimization of parking fees to moderate traffic congestion and encourage a relatively higher rate of bus travel. It is concluded that the model is a useful and efficient tool to assess the effectiveness of parking related policies, as well as city traffic conditions.
Urban Travel Time Variability in New York City: Spatiotemporal Analysis Within Congestion Pricing Context
Anil Yazici, SUNY College, Stony BrookShow Abstract
Ayberk Kocatepe, Florida State University
Eren Ozguven, Florida A&M University - Florida State University
Traffic congestion is an important aspect of quality of life, mobility and accessibility in urban areas. The economic cost of congestion is in the order of billions of dollars especially for dense urban cities. Besides the congestion which relates to the magnitude of travel time, travel time variability is also studied extensively by researchers as an additional measure for transportation network efficiency. In order to enhance the efficiency of urban traffic flow in New York City, numerous policies have been discussed, including different transportation pricing schemes. Pricing schemes – particularly variable pricing – should incorporate the severity of congestion and levels of travel time variability at different times of day and areas throughout the City. However, most of the existing discussions are based on number of trips and bridge/tunnel crossings in the City, mainly because the necessary data to calculate travel time related measures have not been extensively available. This study utilizes taxis as probe vehicles collecting travel time information in the city 24/7 in the New York City urban network and uses two separate taxi trip datasets to calculate the spatio-temporal travel time patterns covering all boroughs of New York City. The identified spatio-temporal congestion and travel time variability patterns are discussed within perspective of congestion pricing policy discussions in New York City.
Next Generations of Road Pricing: Social Welfare Enhancement
Omid Rouhani, McGill UniversityShow Abstract
Arash Beheshtian, Cornell University
This paper offers a broad overview of road pricing from a
social welfare perspective.
Efficient Frontier of the Trip Schedules in the Morning Commute Problem: User Equilibrium, System Optimum, and Dynamic Pricing
Mahyar Amirgholy, Cornell UniversityShow Abstract
Eric Gonzales, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
The morning commute problem addresses a single bottleneck with a time-dependent demand and fixed capacity. Insufficient capacity of bottleneck results in the formation of a queue, which causes to users experience a combination of delay and schedule deviation in their commutes. Rational users tend to minimize the combination of these costs in their own trip by adjusting their arrival times to the bottleneck. However, the relative importance of the components of the cost may vary from one person to another, and such heterogeneity in user preferences can be represented by a probability distribution over the population of the commuters. Competition between the users in minimizing their own cost eventually leads to the user equilibrium condition in which no one can reduce his or her cost by changing his or her own arrival time. In this paper, we adapt the concept of the efficient frontier from Portfolio Theory propose an analytical solution to this bi-criterion choice problem when there is heterogeneity associated with preferences of the commuters. On this basis, we analytically approximate the equilibrium arrivals of the heterogeneous commuters to the bottleneck. We also use the results to propose a dynamic pricing pattern to optimize the system by avoiding the formation of a queue. Next, this approach is employed to derive a closed form solution for this problem when the probability distributions of the preferences are uniform. In the end, a numerical problem is solved using the proposed model for different distribution of schedule penalty preferences of heterogeneous users.
Application of Traffic Thermostat for the I-30 Managed Lanes in Dallas, Texas
Nicholas Wood, Texas A&M Transportation InstituteShow Abstract
Mark Burris, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
Tina Geiselbrecht, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
Natalie Bettger, North Central Texas Council of Governments
Dan Lamers, North Central Texas Council of Governments
Managed lanes have historically experienced an evolution of change in operational policies. Over time, speeds on a managed lane may become degraded due to an oversubscribed demand that cannot be sufficiently met. Operators have strategies they can use to mitigate problems and maintain optimal performance, including changing the occupancy requirement, varying tolls (if the facility is priced), and altering transit service. Assessing the potential impact of operational strategies is a challenge. The traffic thermostat tool was developed as a software-based guide to help with selecting specific strategies projected to impact the metrics for each goal. This paper outlines how the tool was adapted for use on the I‑30 managed lanes in Dallas, Texas, a high-occupancy toll lane with reduced toll rates for qualifying carpools. The program goals of travel speed and throughput were selected for the example scenario, with acceptable performance thresholds of 50 mph and 5,700 persons per hour (for the entire facility). Projected speed and throughput values for selected operational fixes were estimated within the tool using the calibrated speed-flow relationship from NCTCOG. Mode shift elasticities were imputed into the model using results from a quantitative travel survey. Overall, the dynamic nature of demand, diversity of user groups, ambiguity with exogenous factors (e.g., regional unemployment, fuel prices) and the need for extensive data on the lanes led to uncertainty and difficulty with prediction capability. However, using the traffic thermostat can show policymakers and others the inherent challenge of performance management for managed lane facilities.
Evaluation of Operational Effects of I-66 Active Traffic Management System
PilJin Chun, VHBShow Abstract
Michael Fontaine, Virginia Transportation Research Council
In September 2015, the Virginia Department of Transportation activated an Active Traffic Management (ATM) system on I-66 in Northern Virginia. I-66 is a major commuter route into Washington, D.C. that experiences significant recurring and nonrecurring congestion. The ATM system sought to dynamically manage existing capacity more effectively through the use of hard shoulder running (HSR), advisory variable speed limits (AVSLs), lane use control signs, and queue warning systems. An initial before-and-after analysis of the system’s operational effectiveness was performed using probe-based travel time data from the provider INRIX and ATM utilization records from the traffic operations center. On weekdays, statistically significant improvements were often observed during off peak periods, but conditions did not improve during peak periods. Weekends showed the greatest improvements, with travel times and travel time reliability measures improving by 10-14 percent. Segment-level analysis revealed that most of the benefits were attained due to the use of HSR outside of the peak periods, which created additional capacity on I-66. Benefits due to AVSLs were inconclusive due to limited data.
Simulation-Based Determination of Minimum Routing Decision Distance for Managed Lanes: Case Study of I-295 in Jacksonville, Florida
Kelvin Machumu, University of North FloridaShow Abstract
Thobias Sando, University of North Florida
Enock Thomas Mtoi, Florida State University
Deo Chimba, Tennessee State University
Valerian Kwigizile, Western Michigan University
Congestion Pricing is increasingly becoming a common strategy for congestion management, often requiring microscopic simulation during planning and operational stages. One of the microscopic simulation issues that has not yet been addressed is the required minimum routing decision distance upstream the ingress point. To answer this question, this study used a VISSIM model for I-295 proposed managed lanes in Jacksonville, Florida, varying the routing decision point at regular intervals from 500 feet to 7000 feet for different levels of service input. Three measures of effectiveness (MOEs); speed, number of vehicles changing lanes, and following distance, were used for the analysis. These MOEs were measured in the 500 feet zone prior to the ingress. The results indicate that as the level of service deteriorates, speed decreases, number of vehicles changing lanes increases, and the following distance decreases. When the level of service is fixed, the increase in the routing distance from the ingress point was associated with the increase in the speed at the 500 feet zone prior to the ingress, less number of lane changes, and the increase in following vehicle gap. However, the MOEs started to be constant after reaching a certain routing decision distance. Level of service D was used for determining the minimum routing decision distance to the ingress of the managed lane. The determined minimum distances were 4000 and 3000 feet for six and three lane segments prior to the ingress point, respectively.
Simulation-Based Comparative Performance Measures for I-295 Express Lanes in Jacksonville, Florida
Kelvin Machumu, University of North FloridaShow Abstract
Thobias Sando, University of North Florida
Enock Thomas Mtoi, Florida State University
Angela Kitali, Florida International University
This study was conducted along I-295 project in Jacksonville Florida which is still under construction intended to compare simulated performance measures and predict the benefit between managed lanes and the adjacent general purpose lane. VISSIM a microsimulation software was exploited in the study. In order to overcome operation and functional constraints in VISSIM, VB script was incorporated to make the model more robust. VB script was verified using the decision model equation by comparing managed lane facility share from VISSIM to the calculated share from the logit equation. The model developed reflected the actual site conditions where driver behaviors, speed distribution, and different vehicle classes according to the value of time were modeled in the study. A number of simulation runs were conducted and results averaged to have precise results. Four measures of effectiveness were taken into consideration; Speed, travel time savings, safety in terms of conflicts, and emissions. Since VISSIM gave out trajectory file for conflicts, safety surrogate analysis model, SSAM, was used to analyze the conflicts. The results obtained from the analysis indicated that there will be lower emissions, conflicts, and fuel consumption in express lanes compare to the adjacent general purpose lane for all levels of service also travel time will be saved when using the managed lanes at any traffic density. Therefore the analysis showed that the I-295 express lane will provide commuters with values of their money and also conserve the environment due to low emissions. This will help transportation agencies to judge on the implementation of the express lanes and make an appropriate decision on the improvements if required
Attitudes Toward HOT Lanes with a Refund Option
Sravani Vadlamani, Arizona State UniversityShow Abstract
Yingyan Lou, Arizona State University
Priced Managed Lanes (MLs) have been gaining increase momentum as an effective travel demand strategy in the recent past. This study explores the attitudes of the public towards a new and innovative pricing strategy for MLs called Travel Time Refund (TTR) which provides an additional option to paying drivers to insure their travel time by issuing a refund to the toll cost if they do not reach the destination within the specified travel times due to accidents or unforeseen circumstances. The responses from a stated preference (SP) survey were analyzed to explore the impact of travel time reliability and latent variables representing psychological constructs on the travelers’ choice of this new pricing strategy. The results indicate the decision maker’s level of comprehension of the concept of HOT and TTR plays a significant role in their choice making.