GENDER GAP ANALYSIS OF BICYCLE MODE CHOICE IN BALTIMORE COLLEGE CAMPUSES
Farhad Abasahl, Maryland Department of TransportationShow Abstract
Kaveh Bakhsh Kelarestaghi, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
This study investigates gender equity in bicycle mode choice and obstacles preventing women from bicycling in major college campuses in Baltimore metropolitan area. Socioeconomic data, travel preferences, mode accessibility, and individual factors of surveyed population were used to identify generators of gender difference. First, bivariate analysis was conducted and the findings suggest that accessibility, ownership, and know-how of riding bicycle, are not significantly different across genders, but women are about 30% less likely to bicycle from home to campus. Women, as opposed to men, are found to be significantly sensitive to environment and infrastructure conditions. Next, gender pooled and gender specific logistic models were developed and results confirm the gender difference in bicycling to campus. Findings by these models show that distant trips, longer travel times, not having access to bicycle, unsafe environment, and heavy traffic avert women from bicycling. Age also has negative impact on women’s propensity to bicycle, while graduate degree generates positive attitude to use this mode. The results show that Integration of bicycle and transit services, advancing infrastructure to separate bicycle from motorized traffic, improving safety in bicycle facilities, and enhancing public knowledge about local bicycle routes attract more women to bicycling.
Intra-household bargaining for school trip accompaniment of children: A group decision approach
Alireza Ermagun, Northwestern UniversityShow Abstract
David Levinson, University of Sydney
This paper tests a group decision-making model to examine the school travel behavior of students 6-18 years old in the Minneapolis - St. Paul Metropolitan area. The school trip information of 1,737 two-parent families with a student is extracted from Travel Behavior Inventory data collected by the Metropolitan Council between the Fall 2010 and Spring 2012. The model has four distinct characteristics including: (1) considering the student explicitly in the model, (2) allowing for bargaining or negotiation within households, (3) quantifying the intra-household interaction among family members, and (4) determining the decision weight function for household members. This framework also covers a household with three members, namely, a father, a mother, and a student, and unlike other studies it is not limited to dual-worker families. To test the hypotheses we build two models, each with and without the group-decision approach. The models are separately built for different age groups, namely students 6-12 and 12-18 years old. This study considers a wide range of variables such as work status of parents, age and gender of students, mode of travel, and distance to school. The findings of this study demonstrate that the elasticities of the two modeling approaches differ not only in the value, but in the sign in some cases. In 63% of the cases the unitary household model underestimates the results. More precisely, the elasticities of the unitary household model are as large as 2 times more than that of the group-decision model in 20% of cases. This is a direct consequence of model misspecification that misleads both long- and short-term policies where the intra-household bargaining and interaction is overlooked in travel behavior models.
GENDERED TRANSPORT FOR THE COMMUTE TO SCHOOL AND WORK: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Michele Colley, University of TorontoShow Abstract
Ron Buliung, University of Toronto, Mississauga
Research on gender differences in travel behaviour dates back over a century and continues to be of interest to transport scholars, planners, and geographers. This article reviews the gender and mobility literature through the life cycle (i.e. from childhood to adulthood), including the commute to school and work through time and space. The paper examines research focused on child and youth travel to school, the influence of gender on travel to paid work outside the home, and explores the relationship between gender, mobility, space and time. The literature demonstrates how travel patterns are generational and gendered; parents influence mode of travel to school for children (e.g. preventing females from walking to school due to fear of strangers), while the presence of children affects travel patterns to work for parents (e.g. women travel shorter distances to work due to household responsibilities). Complex activity patterns and travel demand exist for women as they enter and experience child-rearing stages of life and are associated with generally carrying out more unpaid labor than men. The way women participate in paid work and unpaid household labor, and how this labor interacts with transport systems (or not), remain important subjects of inquiry deserved of greater attention in research and policy. More research on the generational dimensions of mobility preferences, inter-generational relationships, and mobility differences through the life cycle would provide insight into the shifting nature of gendered mobility and parenting norms over time.
A Discussion on Equity and New Car Buyers in California
Julie Schiffman, University of California, DavisShow Abstract
Gil Tal, University of California, Davis
Lewis Fulton, University of California, Davis
California’s Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP) subsidizes the purchase of new and transitional zero-emission vehicles (ZEV). ZEV subsidies are currently exhausted for FY 2015-2016, with requests by California’s Air Resources Board (ARB) pending for additional funding. The CVRP needs continued funding to meet ZEV sales targets established in the ZEV mandate, at least in the short term. This paper discusses evidence that incentives are crucial in promoting clean vehicle adoption rates, which are less likely to be purchased by lower income households; yet environmental policies can exacerbate inequalities and vulnerabilities of low-income households.