This session includes posters presenting research findings on topics important to young driver licensing and safety. Topics include ecodriving, situational awareness, seat belt use, executive functioning, graduated driver licensing policies, driving habits, and related topics. Research methods employed in this research include simulation, survey, and record reviews.
Knowledge About Crash Risk Factors and Self-Reported Driving Behavior: Exploratory Analysis on Multistate Teen Driver Survey
Lisa Minjares-Kyle, Texas A&M Transportation InstituteShow Abstract
Subasish Das, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
Gabriella Medina, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
Russell Henk, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
Traffic crashes have been the leading cause of unintentional death for teen (15- to 19-year-old) drivers for many years. Many challenges exist to determine the key risk factors in teen driver’s driving behavior, including conventional data sources–both prospective and retrospective. Retrospective data sources are conventional structured police reports, which are limited in information to identify risk factors at high levels of analysis. Prospective data like from a survey may add value in the current gap of identifying key risk factors associated with teen driver crashes. A countermeasure developed in 2003 within the state of Texas is the grassroots peer-to-peer safety program for young drivers, Teens in the Driver Seat® (TDS). The program utilizes positive peer influence and peer-to-peer education, which has been shown to have significant impacts on high-risk behaviors. This study used a total of 109,266 surveys (from 11 states) distributed through the TDS program for this analysis. State-specific exploratory analysis shows trends of teen driving behavior for different states. Text mining was performed on the manual entries of the perceived top risk factors from the survey respondents. The top perceived risk factors varied among male and female teen respondents. A cluster of male respondents more frequently responded with drinking, texting, phone use, speeding, and (lack of) seatbelts as top risks, while female respondents cited drinking, phone use, talking, music, and eating. The findings of the current study should provide significant contributions and insights into the area of teen driver research.
Young Driver Compliance with Graduated Driver Licensing Restrictions Before and After Implementation of a Decal Provision
Aimee Palumbo, Children's Hospital of PhiladelphiaShow Abstract
Melissa Pfeiffer, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Michael Elliott, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Allison Curry, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Introduction. State-level Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) systems in the US restrict intermediate (i.e., newly licensed) drivers from driving in certain higher-risk conditions, which include driving late at night and with multiple passengers, while on-road experience is gained. In May 2010, New Jersey implemented the first-in-the-nation decal provision, which required intermediate drivers under age 21 to display visible decals on their front and back license plates while driving. The provision was intended to increase intermediate drivers’ compliance with and enforcement of GDL restrictions, encourage avoidance of other high-risk driving behaviors, and ultimately reduce young driver crashes (see Figure 1). We previously found that the provision was associated with a sustained 9.5% decline in police-reported crash rates over the first two years after implementation (Curry et al.,AJPM 2015). This study examines whether the decal provision was associated with an increase in compliance with passenger and nighttime restrictions. Findings will provide insight on whether the decal provision reduced crashes via the hypothesized mechanism.
Methods .We analyzed statewide driver licensing and crash data from the New Jersey Traffic Safety Outcomes (NJ-TSO) data warehouse for May 2008-April 2012. We used the quasi-induced exposure (QIE) method, which assumes that non-responsible drivers in “clean” multi-vehicle crashes are randomly selected from the driving population at the time and place of the crash, to estimate prevalence of noncompliance among 17- to 20-year-old intermediate drivers. Several previous published papers have proposed, validated, and applied QIE methods for this purpose (Curry et al., Accid Anal Prev 2014; Curry et al., Traffic Inj Prev2015; Curry et al.,Traffic Inj Prev 2016; Curry et al.,AJPM2017).
Drivers were considered noncompliant with the nighttime restriction if were driving from midnight through 4:59 a.m.—the time period that were restricted both before and after the decal provision went into effect. Given that we were not able to confirm the presence of a parent or guardian, noncompliance with the passenger restriction was defined as driving with more than one passenger in the vehicle when no passenger was aged 35 or older. The prevalence of trip-level noncompliance was estimated asI i/ N , where i is the restriction of interest,N is the total number of non-responsible intermediate drivers involved in clean multi-vehicle crashes, and I i is the number of these non-responsible intermediate drivers who were not in compliance with restriction i at the time of their crash. Multivariate log-binomial regression models compared the prevalence of noncompliance with passenger and nighttime restrictions pre- and post-implementation. Models were adjusted for age, sex, season, and area income and population density, and an interaction term for month and decal period was created to test for a difference in the monthly rate of change. To visually depict noncompliance in the post-decal period that would be expected in the absence of a decal provision (i.e., the counterfactual condition), we used pre-decal data to calculate the predicted probability of noncompliance ( p i ) for each trip in the post-decal period.
Results .Data from 20,593 non-responsible intermediate drivers involved in crashes was included in analyses. Estimated noncompliance with the nighttime restriction was 1.75% before and 1.71% after the decal provision (p=0.83); the monthly change in noncompliance with nighttime restrictions did not differ between the time periods, decreasing at a rate of 1.67% (95% CI: -3.72%, 0.42%) before and increasing at a rate of 0.38% (95% CI: -1.86%, 2.67%) after implementation (p-value for interaction term=0.18). Noncompliance with the passenger restriction was 8.68% before and 8.31% after (p=0.35); monthly change in noncompliance with passenger restrictions also did not differ between the time period, with a decrease of 0.15% (95% CI: -1.04%, 0.75%) before implementation and a decrease of 0.35% after (95% CI: -1.33%, 0.65%) (p-value for interaction term=0.77). Monthly observed and predicted non-compliance rates can be seen in Figure 2.
Conclusions< /strong>< strong> . Compliance rates among NJ intermediate drivers were high both before and after the decal provision, and introduction of NJ’s decal provision was not associated with a change in compliance rates among the state’s intermediate drivers. Absolute rates of noncompliance were similar to rates estimated from naturalistic driving studies (Goodwin et al, J Safety Res . 2004; Klauer et al, Traffic Inj Prev. 2011), and our findings of a lack of change in compliance were in line with pre-post survey conducted by McCartt et al. in 2013. Findings do not suggest that the previously observed decline in crash rates following implementation was due to increased compliance with nighttime or passenger driving restrictions. However, alternative pathways may exist and decalprovisions may influence other behaviors of young drivers and other drivers on the road. For example, recent studies suggest that decal provisions may encourage intermediate drivers to exhibit safer driving behaviors, as one-third to one-half of surveyed teens with intermediate licenses reported that theydrove more carefully when displaying their provisional plates or decals (McCartt et al.,< em> Traffic Inj Prev. 2013; Bates et al., Traffic Inj Prev. 2017). Additional research is needed to understand mechanisms by which decal provisions may reduce young driver crashes.
Working Together to Develop Interventions for Young Drivers, Precrash, Preoffense, and Prelicence: A Multiagency Collaboration
Bridie Scott-Parker, University of the Sunshine CoastShow Abstract
Leanne Stokes, Department of Transport and Main Roads
Stuart Gardner, Department of Transport and Main Roads
Megan Cawkwell, Sunshine Coast Council
Matt Wilson, Queensland Police Service
Shane Panoho, Queensland Police Service
Sherryn Klump, Queensland Police Service
Young drivers persist as a major public health problem due to their over-involvement in road crashes in which they and other road users are injured. In 2013 a multi-agency collaborative working group was created in the Sunshine Coast region of Queensland, Australia, to improve road safety more generally, and young driver road safety specifically. Funding for a four-stage project was generated, with the aim of elucidating how to identify high risk young drivers (HRYD) – pre-offence, pre-crash – so that early intervention may prevent problematic on-road behaviour. This manuscript summarises the findings of the four-stage project.
Stage 1 was a comprehensive literature review of profiling youth (e.g., HRYD). Stage 2 operationalised focus groups with stakeholders. Stage 3 was the development of the HRYD model. Stage 4 was a two-step cluster analysis of de-identified police records of n=2,973 youth with offence data from age 14 years.
HRYD model comprised on-road (e.g., offences) and off-road (e.g., community behaviour) behaviours/characteristics. Cluster analysis identified four groups: cluster 1 and 3 comprised non-injury and injury crashers, , cluster 2 comprised HRYD, cluster 4 comprised substance users.
Discussion and implications
The multi-agency collaboration revealed a HRYD model and
real-world sample. Premised on the notion that ‘prevention is better than the
cure’, the next project will test the veracity and robustness of the model
across Queensland. The findings will inform the development of multi-agency
interventions to potential HRYD before they offend, before they crash, and
indeed before licensure.
The Driving Exposure of Learner and Provisional Drivers: Insight from an App-Based Study
Bridie Scott-Parker, University of the Sunshine CoastShow Abstract
Nick Hansen, University of the Sunshine Coast
Young drivers persist as a major public health problem due to their over-involvement in road crashes in which they and other road users are injured. In Queensland, Australia, young drivers have to progress through a graduated driver licensing (GDL) program. A Learner licence can be gained at age 16 years, and Learners are required to record 100 hours of supervised driving practice in a logbook before they can undertake a practical driving test to determine if they are ready to progress to for independent driving. While logbooks record some information regarding the Learner’s driving exposure, such as suburb, time of day, and distance driven, much remains unknown regarding their driving exposure during this period. Upon passing the practical driving assessment, young drivers advance to a Provisional 1 (P1) licence. We know P1 drivers are overrepresented in crashes, especially in the first 6 months of independent driving, but much remains unknown regarding their driving exposure during this time. The specific aims of the research program are to:
Thirty learner drivers, and their parents, will participate in the longitudinal study (currentlyn=15). Young drivers are provided with a Samsung smartphone, in-car 12V charger, a phone cradle, and a hand towel to cover the phone when not in use, so that the phone remains unobtrusively in the car throughout the longitudinal study. The phone has two pre-installed apps, and the young driver will follow a 4-week cycle throughout the life of the project. The young driver will activate the Driving App (see example screen shot, Figure 1) before they commence every journey, and stop theDriving App at the end of every journey, throughout the minimum 7-month project. Before commencing every journey during week 1 only of the 4-week cycle, the young driver will complete the Happy App (term coined by a participating young driver, see example screen shot, Figure 2), sharing information such as their current mood, the purpose of their journey, and passenger number and relationship to the driver. During the P1 phase of the study, parents will also complete the Happy App, noting their perception regarding the young driver and their journey. At each milestone (baseline, progression to P1 licence, completion of study), young drivers and parents will complete an online survey exploring sociodemographics (e.g., age, gender), driving experience (e.g., licence, crash and offence history), and personal characteristics such as mental health and sensation seeking propensity.
Discussion and implications
Crash statistics and the peer-reviewed literature consistently finds that young driver crash risk is heightened by factors relating to their driving exposure, such as driving at night, driving with friends, driving at excess speed, and driving for social purposes. This highly innovative study captures longitudinal data relating not only to the learner phase and the provisional phase, but through the transition period from supervised to unsupervised driving. In addition, characteristics that cannot be captured through telematics devices, such as the purpose of the trip and how the young driver is feeling, is being captured through the safer supervised period, then the subsequent high risk driving period. The data collected through this pilot project will be able to inform further research within this domain, and will be able to guide the development, implementation and evaluation of exposure-related interventions for young novice drivers.
A Field Study of Effectiveness of Eco-Driving: Real-Time Feedback and Classroom Training
Tao Jiang, University of Massachusetts, AmherstShow Abstract
Song Gao, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Daiheng Ni, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Yue Tang, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Vehicular transportation has a major impact on our society and environment. Techniques for modifying driver behavior to operate motor vehicles in an efficient, safe and environmentally friendly manner can be potentially cost-effective. In this study, two types of behavioral modifications were implemented and evaluated: in-vehicle feedback and classroom eco-driving training. Totally, 133 drivers from Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT) were chosen and divided into four groups based on a two-factor two-level experimental design. Real-time feedback devices provided by GreenRoad were installed on the 133 vehicles and turned-on for half of the drivers. A 1.5-hour classroom eco-driving training session for half of the driver was given by trainer from the University of Vermont. All four groups went through three chronological phases: 1) Phase I (baseline): 6/1-7/27/2015, No intervention was given, 2) Phase II (intervention period): 7/28-10/09/2015, Real-time feedback was provided to two groups, training was conducted for two groups and followed by bi-weekly eco-driving tip emails, and 3) Phase III (off-period): 10/10/2015-02/01/2016, No intervention was given. Linear mixed effect model and Gamma hurdle model were employed as major statistical tools to examine the changes in fuel economy and safety performance. Major conclusions include: 1) Real-time feedback had a significant effect in reducing speeding and overall safety events. 2) Combined effects of classroom training and real-time feedback contributed to 0.89 mile per gallon improvement in fuel economy. Reasonably, It is expected that the combined effects can significantly improve fuel economy, reduce emission and improve safety in the long run.
A Precision Teaching-Based System for Enhancing Driver’s Control of Vehicle Lateral Variability
Riccardo Rossi, Universita di PadovaShow Abstract
Massimiliano Gastaldi, Universita di Padova
Francesco Biondi, University of Utah
Gregorio Gecchele, Universita di Padova
Claudio Mulatti, Universita di Padova
In this paper an application of precision teaching method for enhancing drivers’ lateral control using driving simulator is proposed. Precision teaching method aims at automatizing the reaction of the learner, that is to get the learner to generate the correct response or pattern of responses to a given stimulation in an automatic manner. Since time, this method is extensively used for enhancing students’ performance. The work aims at demonstrating the effectiveness of precision teaching as a technique to enhance driving and reducing accident risk by means of presenting visual and acoustic feedbacks. Four experiments were developed and lateral position was considered as main dependent variable to measure the effect of the proposed method on driving behavior. The positive effect on lateral control of the proposed method, its dependence on the driving context, and its persistence over time (medium term) are proved.
Using Logistic Regression to Understand the Relationship Between Young Drivers and Front-Seat Passengers in Terms of Seat-Belt Usage
Khaled Shaaban, Qatar UniversityShow Abstract
It is well-established that seat belts are effective at preventing fatalities in car crashes. Compared with other age groups, young drivers have the lowest rate of seat belt use. The main objective of this study is to investigate the seat belt use among a sample of young drivers aged 18 through 25 years using observational surveys and short interviews. The study investigated the association between the seat belt using different factors including gender, nationality, time of day, mobile phone use in addition to front-seat passengers use of seat belts. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The results showed that gender, nationality, vehicle type, and time of day were the significant factors that affect the young drivers’ use of seat belts. The analysis showed that there is no statistically significant difference between the young drivers and front passengers in seat belt usage. The results will help policy makers in determining how to promote and enforce safer behaviors among young drivers and will raise awareness among young drivers and stakeholders about the size of the problem and possible solutions.
Comparing Novice Teenage Drivers to Experienced Middle-Aged Drivers: Trust, Mental Workload, and Driving Behavior Toward a Rural Intersection Collision Warning System
Disi Tian, University of Minnesota, Twin CitiesShow Abstract
Nichole Morris, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
The objective of this study was to examine the perceived trust, mental workload and driving behaviors of novice teenage drivers toward an intelligent Rural Intersection Collision Warning System (RICWS), in comparison with the experienced middle aged drivers. A total of N=80 participants, including 40 novice teenage drivers (M= 17.3, SD= 0.7) and 40 middle aged drivers (M= 41.6, SD= 5.0), were recruited into a simulated driving study. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of the four RICWS design options and was instructed to drive through a sequence of rural thru-STOP intersections within four experimental drives. A series of 2 Age x 4 Sign Option x 2 Drive (i.e., baseline vs. intervention) repeated measured mixed ANOVA tests were conducted to determine the significance of the results. Overall, novice teenage drivers perceived significantly higher levels of mental demand, visual demand and overall effort to perform the driving tasks than with experienced middle aged drivers (p<0.05). While teenage drivers consistently reported higher levels of trust in the system (p<0.05), they appeared to infrequently use or comply with the system. In addition, teenage drivers also demonstrated more stop sign violations (p<0.01). Finally, although the intervention of RICWS system was found to have an overall significant effect on shifting drivers’ decisions to select larger gaps at rural intersections (p<0.01), this effect was not apparent for novice teenage drivers. The research findings had important implications for promoting better sign acceptance and safer gap acceptance performance for novice teenage drivers at high risk rural intersections.
Associations Among Executive Function, Gender, and Driving Experience on Driving Avoidance in Young Drivers
Celeste Fernandez, University of Texas, DallasShow Abstract
Benjamin McManus, University of Alabama, Birmingham
Grace Albright, University of Alabama
Jessica Mirman, University of Alabama, Birmingham
Despina Stavrinos, University of Alabama, Birmingham
Background: Previous research on driving avoidance/self-regulation suggests that higher levels of executive functioning is related to better driving abilities, less risky driving behavior, and better decisions made while driving (Anstey, Wood, Lord, & Walker, 2005; Daigneault, Joly, & Frigon, 2002; Starkey & Isler, 2016). There is also research showing that driving attitudes become riskier as experience increases and that young female drivers tend to engage in more driving self-regulation behaviors than males (Gwyther & Holland, 2012; Rowe, Maughan, Gregory, & Eley, 2013). To date, these two lines of research have not been integrated.
Purpose: The goal of the current project was to investigate the associations among executive function, gender, driving experience, and exposure on driving avoidance behavior in young adults.
Method: Participants included 131 fully licensed drivers under 21 years of age (51.9% male). We measured executive functioning using the Behavioral Rating Index (BRI) and the Metacognition Index (MI) of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) (Giola, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000). Time licensed and exposure were measured using self-reported months since licensure and number of days driven per week, respectively. We used nine items from the Driving Habits Questionnaire (DHQ) to measure driving avoidance in nine scenarios: night, left turns onto oncoming traffic, bad weather, high traffic roads, unfamiliar areas, rush hour, high-speed interstates, driving alone, passing up opportunities because of concerns about driving (Owsley, Wells, & Sloane, 1999).
Analytic Approach: Independent samples non-parametric tests were used to compare male and female drivers on each of the driving avoidance variables. Nine hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to examine individual differences in executive function, gender, time licensed, and driving exposure on the nine avoidance items in separate models. The BRIEF BRI and MI raw scores were entered in block 1, gender in block 2, practical experience in block 3, and exposure in block 4.
Results: Female drivers showed greater night driving avoidance and unfamiliar area avoidance than male drivers. Exposure (β= -.258, p=.01) was a significant predictor of night driving avoidance in which greater driving exposure was associated with less night driving avoidance. The model as a whole explained 11.7% of the variability in night driving avoidance with exposure explaining 5.5% of the variance. Females are more likely than males to avoid driving in 2 of the 9 avoidance behaviors (Bad Weather β= -.406, p=.00, Unfamiliar Areas β= -.32, p=.01). As a whole, the models for these behaviors explained 19.4% of the variance in bad weather avoidance and 11.5% of the variability in unfamiliar area avoidance. Gender explained 15.9% and 9.9% of the variance, in each of these models respectively. Drivers who were licensed longer were less likely to avoid driving in rush hour (β= -.203, p=.04).
Discussion:We saw gender differences in avoiding driving at night and in unfamiliar areas. We also found that factors associated with driving avoidance varied by driving scenario for young drivers. This is in contrast to research with older drivers, which suggests a more general pattern of driving avoidance. Future research could investigate the specific processes related to deciding where and when to drive and how avoidance might be associated with motor vehicle crashes. This line of investigation can be used to improve young drivers’ ability to properly self-assess their driving ability with emerging task demands.
Comparison of Younger and Older Drivers on Driving Habits: The Role of Perceived Experience and Executive Function
Grace Albright, University of AlabamaShow Abstract
Benjamin McManus, University of Alabama, Birmingham
Celeste Fernandez, University of Texas, Dallas
Jessica Mirman, University of Alabama, Birmingham
Despina Stavrinos, University of Alabama, Birmingham
Introduction: Motor vehicle collisions are one of the top causes of unintentional injury deaths in teens and older adults (NHTSA, 2017). The factors underlying drivers’ decisions about whether to drive in certain situations may differ between these two at-risk groups. Older drivers may reduce driving in certain contexts as they experience age-related functional deficits (Anstey, et al. 2006). Driving avoidance, or the intentional avoidance of driving contexts that are viewed as difficult or dangerous, increases as older adults recognize a decline in their driving ability (Davis et al. 2016). On the other hand, for novice teen drivers with little practical experience, certain factors (such as environmental cues or information processing), may determine how well they are able to select driving situations that are appropriate to their own skill level (Horrey et al., 2015). Previous research suggests that teens often overestimate their driving abilities (De Craen et al., 2011) and may attempt specific driving contexts outside of their ability.
Objective: The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare the frequency with which younger and older drivers avoid specific driving contexts and 2) to determine if executive functioning [EF] and perceived experience are independently or jointly associated with avoidance of specific driving contexts.
Method: Participants. The study sample consisted of 126 licensed teen drivers ages 16 to 19 years (Mage = 17.70,SD = 1.26; 50% male; 71% Caucasian) and 147 licensed older adult drivers ages 65 to 94 years (Mage = 72.00,SD = 5.91; 46% male; 78% Caucasian).
Measures and Procedure. Participants reported how often they avoided certain driving situations (“Do you avoid driving at night?”) on nine items from the Driving Habits Questionnaire (Owsley, 1999) on a 5-point Likert scale, where 1 = ” Never” and 5 = “Always.” EF was measured in two ways: 1) performance-based EF assessment using the Useful Field of View (UFOV), a 3 subtest computerized assessment of processing speed, divided attention, and selective attention; and 2) self-report EF assessment using the 2 subdomain scores (Behavioral Regulation Index [BRI] and Metacognition Index [MI]) from the well-validated Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) (Gioia and Isquith, 2000). Participants rated their perceived driving experience (“How experienced are you at driving”) on a 5-point Likert scale, where 1 = “ Not Very Experienced” and 5 = “Very Experienced.”
Data Analyses. Age groups were compared on the individual avoidance items from the DHQ and perceived driving experience, on BRIEF subdomain scores (BRI and MI), and total UFOV score (sum of the 3 subtests). All subsequent analyses were stratified by age group. Linear regressions assessed the association of EF and perceived experience with driving avoidance. Interaction terms were included to determine whether the relationship between EF and avoidance varied by perceived experience.
Results: Compared to teens, older adults reported significantly greater avoidance in all driving contexts assessed except driving at night. Among older adults, better EF as measured by UFOV indicated less avoidance of interstate driving and driving at night (bothp’s = .02). Higher perceived experience was associated with less avoidance on all items except avoiding left turn and avoiding traffic (allp ’s < .05). Among teens, better EF as measured by the BRI and MI subscales was associated with less avoidance of opportunities to meet friends/participate in activities and avoidance of driving alone (all p’s < .05).< /p >
Perceived experience moderated EF and driving avoidance in both older adults and teens. In older adults, better EF was associated with more avoidance of interstate driving, driving alone, and opportunities to meet friends/participate in activities specifically at lower values of perceived experience (all p’s < .04). In teens, better EF was associated with more avoidance of left turns specifically at higher values of perceived experience ( p = .03).
Discussion:Findings support previous research indicating older adults tend to avoid driving in different driving contexts. Older adults may be better able to estimate their own abilities supported by evidence that for most contexts assessed, better perceived experience was associated with less avoidance.
Perceived experience significantly moderated EF and driving avoidance in both older adults and teens, but impacted the age groups differentially. In older adults, increased EF and lower perceived experience indicated greater avoidance. In teens, increased EF and higherperceived experience suggested greater avoidance. Despite often overestimating ability, better EF may act as a buffer where teens choose driving contexts appropriate to their skill level. Further research should examine factors influencing teens’ and older adults’ perceived driving experience. Future investigation should also further examine the impact of perceived experience on risky driving habits.