This session will review research on the role of intermodal passenger facilities in the development of jobs in station areas, how large rail stations can accommodate the large demand created by people commuting to jobs, and how downtown bus stops can accommodate company-specific shuttle services in conjunction with public transit service.
Accessibility to the Transit Metropolis: Station Area Working Population and Job Growth, Transit Job Accessibility, and Social Equity Implications
Andrew Guthrie, University of Minnesota, Twin CitiesShow Abstract
Yingling Fan, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
American public transit is taking on a new purpose. Increasingly, even moderate size and/or density metropolises across the country are turning back to rail and exploring bus rapid transit as foci of regional population and economic growth, with the intent of creating new, more sustainable travel patterns. Transit investments seek to promote accessibility: the ability for people to reach useful destinations. Station area development affects accessibility, but whether accessibility can affect the character of station area development is a question the planning literature has so far neglected. To fill this gap in knowledge, therefore, we explore the following research question: What is the relationship between transit job accessibility, new transit stations and station area change in working population and employment? We explore this question and its social equity implications in nine moderate size/density regions that opened new LRT or BRT stations between 2003 and 2010 through the use of six spatial error regression models estimating post-implementation change in station area low-, medium- and high-wage working residents and jobs as a function of accessibility, its interaction with new transit stations and baseline social conditions. We find compelling evidence of an overall positive relationship between accessibility and working population and job growth, as well as evidence of station area gentrification. We recommend prioritizing accessibility in planning transit projects to stimulate TOD and more aggressively pursuing affordable housing production overall, as well as preservation in minority and housing cost-burdened areas.
Infill Stations and Their Effect on System Ridership
Yoshitaka Araki, Japan International Transport Institute (JITI)Show Abstract
Sayaka Fukahori Mensah, Japan International Transport Institute (JITI)
Andrew Komendantov, AECOM
Patricia Macchi, AECOM
When investing to meet market demand, transit agencies look to either build new lines and stations to serve new areas, or construct infill stations along existing lines to fill service gaps. Extending or adding new transit lines requires large investments from the agency and project sponsors, while infill stations often require much smaller investments, as they are built along existing right-of-way and do not increase the total miles of track that need to be maintained. Therefore, transit agencies may choose to add infill stations in underserved areas, if the effects of these investments on the overall system and surrounding stations are positive. The analysis looked at five infill stations on rail transit systems in four major metropolitan areas in the United States and analyzed ridership trends before and after infill stations opened. The analysis of studied stations and systems found that infill stations grow at a faster rate than the rest of the system in the years following their opening, and, when normalized for transit system size, boost the annual growth rate of system ridership in a range of between 1 and 10 basis points, with stations closest to downtown core generally spurring the greatest gains in system ridership.
Private Shuttles and Public Transportation: Effects of Shared Transit Stops on Travel Time and Reliability in Seattle
Elyse Lewis, University of WashingtonShow Abstract
Don MacKenzie, University of Washington
Regina Clewlow, University of California, Davis
An Employer Shared Transit Stop (ESTS) pilot was introduced in April, 2017 by the Seattle Department of Transportation (SDOT) and King County Metro (KCM). Eleven bus stops within the City of Seattle were identified for stop-sharing with private shuttles that serve employees of and are operated by Microsoft and Seattle Children’s Hospital, respectively. This study utilizes real-time transit performance data that was generated by KCM, then collected and aggregated by the company Swiftly to assess the impacts of the ESTS program on bus transit reliability. Data analysis based on visualization tools on the Swiftly Insights platform of route-level schedule adherence as well as fixed panel regressions at the mean, 90th, and 95th quantile of stop-level schedule adherence are considered. On average, bus transit reliability has not been impacted by the ESTS pilot program. Statistically significant results indicating a potential delay in bus arrival times as a result of ESTS stop sharing were found at only one of the nine stops considered in the study. An increase in participating companies and stops is recommended.
Capacity Analysis of a Complex Railway Station Using Integrated Crowd and Transit Simulation: A Case Study of Toronto’s Union Station
Yishu Pu, University of TorontoShow Abstract
Siva Srikukenthiran, University of Toronto
Amer Shalaby, University of Toronto
As passenger demand in rail transit systems increases, major railway stations face serious capacity issues for trains and passengers. Simulation tools have proven effective in analyzing complex station areas. Previous research in simulation methods, however, has only focused on either train or pedestrian movements, while their interaction has hardly been properly captured. An integrated crowd and transit simulation platform – Nexus – was applied to study the impact of pedestrian and train movements on system performance of a complex railway station – Toronto’s Union Station. Extensive data were collected, railway and pedestrian models were constructed with OpenTrack and MassMotion, and finally integrated within Nexus. A 9% drop in on-time performance was observed and passengers’ average duration at LOS F almost tripled with the increase of train and passenger volumes beyond certain levels. Both length and variation of dwell time due to pedestrian movement were recognized as the main factors of performance deterioration, especially when the system approaches capacity. The simulation model helped identify locations where passengers experienced severe overcrowding, which would not be obtainable from mathematical dwell time models. This paper reports on the development of each simulation tool and model results of the scenario tests performed.