Investigating the Temporal Dynamics of Long-Term and Medium-Term Residential Location Choices: A Case Study of London
Md Bashirul Haque, University of LeedsShow Abstract
Charisma Choudhury, University of Leeds
Stephane Hess, University of Leeds
Residential location choices can be long-term (ownership) or medium-term (renting). Most previous researchers have however investigated ownership and/or renting decisions in isolation and there is a distinct research gap in terms of comparing the decisions made in different time scales. This research aims to fill this research gap by investigating the similarities and differences between long-term and medium-term residential choices made by residents of London and also looks at changes in household preferences over the time. The Greater London Area, where there is a 56%-40% split in ownership and renting market is considered as the study area. The models are estimated combining the London Household Survey Data, Ward Atlas Data and the London Transport Studies Model outputs. The results indicate that while there are some common factors affecting both long and medium term choices, the sensitivity to commute distance, distance from the central business district (CBD), residential land area, school quality and ethnic preferences are significantly different in the two groups. This leads to the development of a pooled model which is applied to investigate the temporal changes in the sensitivities. This model shows significant changes in household sensitivity towards attributes over time. The results provide important insights about land-use and transport planning.
Understanding Stated Neighborhood Preferences: The Roles of Life-Cycle Stage, Mobility Style, and Lifestyle Aspirations
Steven Gehrke, Metropolitan Area Planning CouncilShow Abstract
Patrick Singleton, Utah State University
Kelly Clifton, Portland State University
Stated neighborhood preference is informed by a host of factors describing an individual’s socioeconomic condition, current environmental context, past transportation decisions, and future aspirations for certain housing and accessibility attributes. To date, travel applications and behavioral models investigating the residential location choice process have been overly parsimonious in differentiating decision-makers and the existing supply of neighborhoods available for their selection. Consequently, these invaluable urban policy tools are generally unable to illuminate on how emerging market segments and changing lifestyle aspirations may impact future housing, land use, and transportation decisions. To offer this needed insight for better explaining the sources of heterogeneity in residential preferences, this Portland, Oregon study incorporated stated preference survey data into an integrated choice and latent variable framework. The adoption of this analytic framework permitted the latent classification of decision-makers by their lifecycle stage and mobility style, development of latent constructs reflecting their lifestyle aspirations for housing and transportation access, and an investigation of how these distinctive aspects relate to an individual’s stated choice in neighborhood type. Study findings revealed mobility style to be a stronger predictor of lifestyle aspirations than membership to a lifecycle stage, and that the lifestyle aspiration to live in a single-family dwelling and/or location with strong non-auto access best explained neighborhood preference. In all, this study’s integration of lifecycles stage, mobility style, and lifestyle aspirations in a choice modeling framework provided new insight into the mechanisms and complexities underlying an individual’s stated preference for a residential environment.
Do Park-and-Ride Transit Stations Need to Be Built Adjacent to the Transit Station? Examining the Walking Tolerance of Park-and-Ride Users in the Twin Cities, Minnesota
Xinyu Cao, University of Minnesota, Twin CitiesShow Abstract
Michael Duncan, Florida State University
While park-and-ride (P&R) facilities often provide an easy way for people to access a transit system, they can often take up valuable space near a transit stop that could otherwise be used for transit-oriented development (TOD). One possible approach to dealing with this conflict is to move the park-and-ride facility some distance away from the station, leaving additional space for TOD near the station. However, this would require that P&R users tolerate longer walking distances. While several studies have addressed the walking tolerance of transit users more generally, none of these studies has focused on P&R users. This study helps to fill this gap by conducting a survey of P&R users exploring their tolerance for walking from the parking facility to the station under a variety of scenarios (i.e., choice experiments). Statistical analysis of the survey results reveals that P&R users have statistically significant presences for short walking distances, but that they also have significant preferences for a good pedestrian environment that can offset some of the disutility of walking distances. More specifically, the marginal utilities of safe intersections, good pedestrian infrastructure, and an attractive building appearance are estimated to be equivalent to reducing walking distance by 0.062, 0.067, and 0.047 miles, respectively. In a neighborhood that combines these features, P&R users may be willing to walk an additional 0.18 miles. This suggests that planners may be able to move P&R facilities a few blocks away from a station without losing P&R patrons as long as they are able to create pedestrian-friendly routes between the parking lot and station.
How Should Travel Demand and Supply Models Be Jointly Calibrated?
Ali Najmi, University of New South WalesShow Abstract
Milad Ghasri, University of New South Wales
Taha Rashidi, University of New South Wales
S. Travis Waller, University of New South Wales
Calibration is a critical aspect of model development that has long been recognized by researchers as a challenging issue. In particular, difficulties arise when the observed data used for calibration does not match the model output, which is the case in the majority of transport planning models. In the traditional calibration process, the origin-destination (OD) matrices are the key interface between demand and supply models, which could lead to issues when observed traffic link counts are used to update the OD matrix causing a loss of key demand characteristics in the process. Developing a unified structure for modelling both demand and supply requires a calibration process that meets the requirements of both types of models, a serious issue which has received less attention in the literature. In this paper, the existing processes of developing and integrating demand and supply models are discussed and then examined using a case study in Melbourne area. The numerical results show that the standard OD calibration procedure causes unrealistic changes in the OD matrix. Finally, some possible solutions to address the current limitations in development of a unified structure are discussed.
How Far to Live and with Whom? The Role of Modal Accessibility on Student’s Choice of Living Arrangements and the Distance They Are Willing to Live from University in Toronto
Brittany Chung, University of TorontoShow Abstract
MD Sami Hasnine, University of Toronto
Khandker Nurul Habib, University of Toronto
This study investigates the factors influencing university student’s living arrangement choices and the distance they are willing to live from their university. Particular attention is given to the effects on these choices by student’s typical commuting mode choice to and from campus. The dataset used for the study was collected by a travel survey on postsecondary students across four universities in Toronto. An econometric model is developed to jointly model three choices: student’s typical commuting mode choice, their discrete living arrangement choice, and the distance they are willing to live from their campus. The model reveals that the students who are likely to leave the family home for university, also have the tendency to live close to the university. Modal accessibility was found to plays a crucial role in the trade-off between students’ choices of leaving their family home and the distance they are willing to live from the university. Choice of staying in their family home is positively affected by larger household sizes and the presence of senior members (age 75+). Walk and cycling accessibility appear to be the most influential factor in the distance students are willingness to live away from their university. Cost of housing, neighborhood environment, proximity to transit, and proximity to friends/family also have significant effects on the influence of modal accessibility in defining student’s residence distance from their university. These suggest that affordable housing choices by the university campuses can significantly increase the number of active mode users among the student population in Toronto.