Evolution of Car Usage by Women in France Since the 1970s
Clotilde Minster, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)Show Abstract
Sophie Roux, IFSTTAR
Jimmy Armoogum, IFSTTAR
Between 1966 and 2007, five French National Travel Surveys (FNTS) were conducted, thus providing five snapshots of mobility for French households. The four most recent surveys, from 1973 to 2007, have been restored and standardized, thus permitting detailed analyses of this period. Moreover, the definitions and principles of these surveys have not been modified since the outset, which facilitates measurement of structural changes. We analysed the data with a focus on women. Our analyses of this data highlight the relationship between paid employment, car ownership, and car usage for women living in France. Based on survey data, we illustrate the changes in driving license holders that have occurred for the women in France since the nineteen-seventies. Our results recognize thus past actions and draw directions for gendered transport policies.
Gender Differences in Danish Road Accidents
Rie Visby, Danish Road DirectorateShow Abstract
Karoline Lundholt, Danish Road Directorate
A study based on the Danish Road Directorates accident statistics shows, that there are different gender patterns in how we behave in traffic and our involvement in traffic accidents. Overall men drive more by car and take longer trips. Women take more but shorter trips, and drive more by bicycle or walk. Although men and women spend the same amount of time in traffic, twice as many men as women, are involved in traffic accidents. Men constitute 62 % of all persons killed and injured in road accidents, and are involved in 66 % of the accidents. Not only gender, but education, income and age are also important factors in the accident patterns of men and women in Denmark. People with primary/lower secondary school as the highest education level are over represented in accident statistics in proportion to other educational groups. Young people aged 18-24 constitute about 20 % (the largest group) of persons killed and injured in traffic accidents, although they only constitute approximately 8 % of the population. The overall pattern is that, the older you become, the higher educated you are and the higher income you have – the smaller is your risk of involvement in accidents in Denmark. This knowledge is of importance when planning communication strategies with different segments of the population and when reaching out to young people in schools, who are at the highest risk of getting killed or injured in accidents.
Understanding Urban Travel Behavior by Gender
Wei-Shiuen Ng, International Transport ForumShow Abstract
Ashley Acker, International Transport Forum at the OECD
Gender is one of the key socio-demographic variables that can influence travel behaviour, but it is often the least understood. Understanding travel behaviour by gender will help better design transport policies that are effective and equitable. Travel behaviour studies have shown that women have specific characteristics in terms of differences in transport mode, time of travel, trip purpose, trip chain, and travel distance. Such differences are mostly due to the complexity of activities more often experienced by women than men. Multiple tasks and activities due to the gendered division of work leads to women having more varied obligations, including employment, household related activities and caregiving. As a result, women are more likely to have shorter commute distances, chain complex trips, have more non-work related trips, travel at off-peak hours, and choose more flexible modes. This study examines travel behaviour by gender in eight different cities across the world. Using multinomial logistic regression analysis, transport mode, trip purpose, travel distance, and departure time for Auckland, Dublin, Hanoi, Helsinki, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, Lisbon, and Manila, were analysed to examine gender differences in travel behaviour. The most common trends found in the cities, are that women tend to travel shorter distances and prefer public transport and more flexible modes as compared to men. Gender was also found to be a more robust determinant of mode choice than age or income.
The Philadelphia Story: Age, Race, Gender, and Changing Travel Trends
Nicholas Klein, Cornell UniversityShow Abstract
Michael Smart, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Erick Guerra, University of Pennsylvania
We examine changes in travel behavior in the Philadelphia region between 2000 and 2012. We use two household regional travel surveys over a decade apart, the 2000 and 2012 surveys, from the Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission (DVRPC). Previous research, at the national scale, has highlighted changes among the Millennial cohort. We use these two regional datasets to examine the changing travel behavior among Millennials and to put these changes in context by comparing them with changes among other social groups of interest: women and minorities.
We find that the travel behavior of young people did not change substantially between 2000 and 2012. Where there are changes, these pale in comparison to the changes among women and black residents. And finally, we find that the built environment factors appear to influence travel more in 2012 than in 2000. Taken together, our findings fit an overarching narrative about urban gentrification and the suburbanization of poverty, rather than a story of Millennials’ changing travel behavior.